M and C Final ch 11,12,13,16
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memory that forms our life story.
memories for specific continuous periods of time that involve a common activity occurring at a particular place.
a sequence of specific events that form a larger episode.
long periods of life that are organized along some ocmmon theme like "early childhood, education, career".
life narrative memories
- autobiographical memories
- tendency to organize our experiences into some sort of narrative structure.
experience the memory from our original perspective in the situation.
view the memory/situation from outside ourselvs and may see ourselves in that situation.
absence of early childhood memories.
people recalling more info from around the age of 20 than would be expected in a normal forgetting curve.
ability to keep track of where memories come from.
internal source monitoring
distinguishing b/t events a person thought about doing versus actually did.
- to distinguish b/t two external sources
- who told you this? bob or phil.
- did you read about this event in the newspaper or see it on tv?
distinguishing among memories of events that actually happened and those that were only imagined.
- unintentional plagiarism.
- little attention was paid during original encoding the memory trace was weak.
false fame effect
- tendency to think that someone is famous or more famous than they really are because their name sounds familiar.
- uses the principle of mere exposure.
to remember things that never happened.
imagination makes the memory traces richer in detail and makes them seem more like real memories.
when we talk about things we've seen our memories can be changed by this verbalization.
ppl more likely to recognize old info as old and to misrecognize new info as old if the info is revealed gradually rather than all at once.
misleading postevent information
to alter memory by giving misleading information afterward, whether intentionally or not.
arousal is a continuum with memory performance being and inverted U shape function. high and low arousal make memory suffer. moderate arousal is optimum for memory retention and recall.
higher levels of emotional intensity people restrict their attention to a narrower range of details.
weapon focus effect
increase in memory for a weapon that is present in an event along with a decline in memory for other details.
relative judgment principle
ppl may select someone out of a lineup not because it was the person the witness saw, but b/c compared to others in the lineup that person looks most like the criminal.
the physical resemblances of others in the lineup.
when a person mistakenly identifies an innocent bystander as the perpetrator of a crime.
thinking about the way things might have been if someone had behaved differently.
- loss of memories or memory abilitys beyond what is expected in the normal course of forgetting.
- cripples memory processing in systematic ways.
- inability to access long term memories previously available.
- memory loss may not occur immediately.
- retrograde amnesia distrupts it.
- easiest memories to disrupt are those not completely consolidated.
inability to sotre new memories after an accident.
- electroconvulsive therapy
- electrodes placed on the head, sometimes only one side, pulses of electricity passed through the brain.
- memory loss is greater as the age of the memory approaches the time of the trauma.
- the closer to the trauma the memory the more likely it will be difficult to recall.
- electroconvulsive shock
- ECT when used to study memory and not as a treatment.
transient global amnesia
- no memory of the recent past; memory loss can last from a few hours to several decades in most cases is for a few months.
- episodes last only a few hours and occurs in people from 50-70.
- when people are given some propaganda that comes form a source of either high or low credibility.
- if source was low credibility people initially discount the info but over time they consider the source more credible than it was at first.
- being so psychologically disturbed by something that is causes forgetting on a massive scale.
- a person is unable to remember segments of info about their life.
- not remembering events of the day leading up to an accident.
cannot remember info related to a traumatic event.
person has trouble remembering events within a block of time (hours or weeks)
nearly all of a person's life is forgotten.
memory is disrupted to the point a person forgets fundamental aspects of their identity.
fugue and flight
change in a person's identity and residence because they have forgotten their life.
loss of memories but core identity is intact.
- reversion in the mind to an ealier state of life, inability to remember events after that period.
- when a person comes out of a fugue state, they remember the lives they originally forgot and forget their fugue lives.
Korsakoff’s Disease –
anterograde amnesia that can result from chronic alcohol use/ or vitamin B deficiency/ malnutrition
Visual object agnosia –
inability to recognize a familiar object by sight; cant understand what they're looking at; no problem with the visual system.
inability to pay attention to more than one stimulus at a time.
– inability to recognize faces.
Spatial agnosia –
having difficulty negotiating the world.
Tactile agnosia -
inability to recognize an object by touch.
Sensory amusia –
- inability to recognize a range of features of music.
- cant recognize jingle bells.
Psychogenic fugue –
develops complete, extensive retrograde amnesia/ block out entire personal identity.
Tip of the tongue –
when you’re confident you know the word/answer you’re searching for but you can’t recall it.
– experiencing something as unfamiliar when it should be familiar.
Semantic satiation –
loss of meaning of words; if you say a word enough it looses its meaning.
Change blindness –
when people fail to detect changes that occur over time; forgetting might indicate encoding failure.
– driving home and after getting home you don’t remember the drive.
Illusion of truth –
tendency to believe things are true because they are familiar.
any technique that we can use to help us remember something.
Phonetic mnemonic –
memory aid useful for remembering numbers.
Interactive images (image mneumonics) –
using images to help remember lists of items or concepts (not great for concepts).
presumed physical site of memory/ where memories are stored.
psychodymanic view of infantile amnesia
we repress our early memories.
cognitive view of infantile amnesia - schema
adults and children use different schema to transfer and recall memories; no overlap in adulthood so cant recall childhood memories.
factors for flashbulb memory to occur
- consequentiality - personal importance
cog. view infantile amnesia - linguistic
- children who learn language later in life should have first memories later in life;
- language development doesn’t not impact memory formation.
Cognitive view; self
– self recognition occurs around age 2;
Neurological view; maturation of the CNS
- – if hippocampus isn’t fully developed you can’t retrieve infantile memory;
- if the brain grows and develops won’t be able to retrieve infantile memories
– person realizes they are not guilty of a crime but confess to it anyway.
– innocent person actually starts to believe they committed the crime.
reasons for misinformation effect
- Memory trace replacement theory
- Coexistence theory
- Response bias theory
- Demand characteristics
Memory trace replacement theory
Original memory is altered. – what subjects remember is a blended or integrated memory of two events;
Two memories exist, the modified one and the original memory
Response bias theory
Misleading post-event information biases the subjects tendency to respond in a particular way.
features of the experiment that encourage you to respond in a particular manner.
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