Biology Final

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Biology Final
2011-05-03 23:07:57
biology final

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  1. 7 traits of animals
    • multicelluar
    • cells organized into tissues, organs, organ systems
    • Eukaryotic w/o cellulose
    • heterotrophic
    • able to move
    • respond quickly appr. to changes in the enviroment
    • sexual reproduction (most of the time)
  2. advantage over single celled orgs. because cells become specialized to preform specific function
  3. multi-celled but cells not organized into tissues
  4. Example of a parazoan
  5. Multi-celled, cells organized into tissues
  6. Carnivorse, Herbivores, and Omnivores are _________
  7. Means one house; cross v self fertilization; both male and female gonads
  8. Means 2 house; do not carry both gonads
  9. Three types of Asexually reproduction
    fission, fragmentation, parthenogenis
  10. Type of asex. repo that is binary, multiple and transverse
  11. Internal body temp fluctuates with ambient enviroment temps. (miscalled "cold blooded"
  12. Single celled organisms, aquadic, inverabrates, fish, amphilbians, and some reptiles have what type of tempeture regulation
  13. This Temp Regulation maintians stable body tempetures
  14. Increases bt useing external sources of heat
  15. most reptiles and flying insects are
  16. increase by using heat from internal souces (ex heat produced as a by product of metabolism)
  17. What type of class is endotherms
    Birds and mammals
  18. This is a daily cycle of inactivity
  19. This is triggered by lower temp, lack of food so the metabolism and bt is lowered
  20. This period of inactivity is a season cycle
  21. This is triggers by lower temp and lack of food so the metabolism and bt is lowered; if bt drops below 20C then metabolism rises until bt reaches 20C ; little fat is stored
  22. What Torpors
    hummingbirds and some bats
  23. what hibernates?
    bats and rodents
  24. This period on inactivity is a seasonal; it is triggered by low temp; BT drops with that of envi., potential for animals to freeze to death
  25. This is triggered by low temp and lack of food; Metabolism and BT not signficantly lowered; large fast strores required
  26. What Brumates
    Amphibians reptiles
  27. This is triggered by water shortages and is affected by insects and aniphibians
  28. Waterholding frog cocoons can last up to ___ years
  29. This has no reg body plans and are rare these are usually sponges
  30. This body plan transects throguh any central axis along the bodys and results in ident. halve ; these are able to sense and feed in all directions also not very active
    Radically symmetrical
  31. This body plan constructs along a longt. plane, halving along thi plane (only) resualts in (nearly) ind. halves, these also tend to be more active
    Bilaterally symmetrical
  32. Organisms whos structure support has spocules of calcuim carbonate, spongin fibers
  33. Organism that has parenchyma cells
  34. Organism that has exoskeleton of chitin
    insects and flatworms
  35. Organism that has endoskeleton of cartilage or bone
  36. Site for muscle contraction, improves efficency of contraction, support/protection
    Endoskeleton and exoskeleton
  37. To be an exoskeleton the structure must be ________
  38. Growth in exoskeleton can only occur in discrete intervals such as _______
    ecdysis (shedding of exoskeleton)
  39. This Phylum is mainly marine interdial
  40. Porifera have no tissues so they are _________
  41. What is the lifestyle of a porifera?
    They do not move
  42. What is the body type of the porifera?
    Asymmetrical and radially symmetrical
  43. The Porifera central cavitys or series of branching chambers allow __________________
    water to circulate
  44. these cells helps to change shape of sponge
  45. This cell is phagocytic
  46. These cells specizlised to form porocytes which allows water to curculate into sponge
  47. Pinacocyates are also called
    peripheral cells
  48. This cells stores nutrients and transport
    Mesenchyme/amoebiod cells (middle)
  49. These cells secrete spicules (support) form eggs (sometines sperm)
    mesenchyme/amoebiod cells (middle)
  50. these cells care collar cells with cilia forming a collar to traps food particles
  51. This cells central flagellm creats currents by whipping around
  52. This is the simplest form and leasdt sponge-like;
  53. This body type as water entering through ostia into central cavity and out throug single osculum
  54. pores consisting of single cells
  55. This body type the sponge wall folds inward creating larger suface area
    has an incurrent channels
    chonocycles line radical channel
    single osculum through which water exits
  56. This is the most complex of the body form of a sponge
  57. This is used as a bath sponge
  58. This body form has an extensively branched canal system and is one of the largest sponges
  59. The ecologocial importance of a porifea
    They reduce tubidity by filtering organic particles from water
  60. Types of animals are in the Phylum Cnidaria
    • Jellyfish
    • sea anemone
    • corals
  61. The phylum has alternation of generations called
    polyp and medusa
  62. The polyp is ________ while the medusa is _________
    sessile / mobile
  63. The Cnidaria has what type of digestive system
    Gastrovascular cavity - absorbs/digest gas exchange
  64. The Cnidaria have ________ which is used in defense, feeding, and attachment
  65. One alternation of Generation in the Cnidaria is ________ which has shared gastrovascular cavity gastozooids 1st to form
    Gonozooid (asexual reproduction)
    Bud medusa
  66. The alteration of generation in the Cnidaria is ________ which sexual reproduction, its a male and female
    has an oral surface
    gametes fuses to form planula larva
  67. This settles to form polyp generation (dispersal form)
    planula larva
  68. This has both asexual and sexual structures
  69. Example of a polyp is
    Physalia - Man of war
  70. 'Single organism' colony of polyps (Looks like a medusa but not) -they float (pheumatophore) single individual which supports rest of colony
  71. Rotifera and Round worms have a ________ symmetry a _________ tubular digestive system
    Bilateral / Tubular
  72. Ecdysis required for growth
    Hard curticle
  73. Number of cells making up adult or any organ is the same for all individuals of the same species
  74. ciliated organ found on top of top head; cilila beat in metachronal wave
  75. Small, fresh water, many are parthenogentic during spring and summer (female only pops) In autumn eggs are produced by meiosis which if not feritlized become male fertilized are thick shelled over wintering stage.
    Rapid increase in population numbers`
  77. Nematoda are also known as
  78. These are very abundant and free-living species (nutrients recyclers vs. parastic)
  79. Roundworms are ________ symmetery and __________. they have a __________ digestive tract they are ___-cious and ___-morphic have a ______ reproductive potential but 1 egg produces 1 adult
    bilateral / vermiform / complete / dioe /di / high
  80. juveniles undergo ___ molts before reaching sexual maturity (unquie)
  81. ___________ Parasites of Human
  82. _______________ are a nematode common in US, adults in lg. intestine mate, male dies immediately female migrates down and out through anus lays eggs then dies
  83. You can get ________ by eating or inhaling eggs infecting reinfecting host
  84. This Nematode you get from eathing contaimated food scraps if meat is not properly cooked
  85. This is rarely seen in developed nations regular food supply, more frequently seen in ppl who eat improperly prepared bear meat or other game
  86. This nematode causes "elephantiatis"
    Filarial Worm
  87. The Filarial worm comes from larvea traveling in the blood vessels to skin by
  88. The true symbol of medicane comes from the
    Staff of Asclepius
  89. This nematode crawls around under skin the physican would cut skin just around the head of parasite then when it reach the incision whould wind parasite up on stick
    Staff of Asclepius
  90. This is a Firlarial worm that normally found in dogs and sometimes cats it infects cardiac muscles generally fatal unless caught and treated eraly
  91. The phylum mollusa has a ________ symmetry and an ______ circulartory system
    Bilateral / open
  92. _______________ the most primative of the mollusa
  93. The polyplacopora also called ________- they have ___ dorsal plates and broad foot, they live in _______
    chiton / 8/ marine
  94. This class of Mollusa is marine, freshwate terrestraal, they have a coiled shell or no shell they have a prominent head with tentacles and eyes
  95. This class of Mollusa is marine and freshwater there body compressed btw 2 hinged shells; these are clams and oysters
  96. This class of Mollusa is marine and active swimmers they are octpi nautili squid and cuttle fish they are predatory and have a ________ circulartory system with a digestive tract _________ they have _________ fertilization and __________ delevopement
    Cephalopoda / closed/ muscular/ internal / direct
  97. C. Cephalodpoda well delevoped eyes with lenses means that they have no
    blind spots
  98. Specialized arm in males for spermatophore transfer
  99. This circulary system allows for them to get larger size because tussues delivered nutrients and oxygen directly (rather than by diffusion)
  100. Mantle does not produce shell in most species except for
    Nautilus and cuttlefish
  101. This Phylum is segmented worms, they are marine freshwater and terresterial they have a _________ symmetery and they body is ______
    Annelida / bilateral/ metameric
  102. This body improves effiancy of locomotions, it is divided into segments and externally and inernally
  103. This class consist of lugworms sandworms and filter worms
  104. filter worms are ____ feeders
    sandworms are _______
    lungworms are _________ feeders meaning they eat dirt
    Filter / predators/ deposit
  105. Why do the polychaetas have a problem with living in the burrows?
    • normal body functions can work against them
    • food and mates means exposing themself to prediction
  106. These worms have a reproductive system called ___- atoke remains in burrow buds off new indviduals (asexual repro) called _____
    Samoan palolo worms / epitoky / epitoke
  107. This means dioecious product 1 a yaer in Nov. it is released en masse to mate. provides predators with a good meal only one yeaer atike gereation is kept safe in burrow
  108. Parapodia means
    • Locomotion
    • Respiration
    • Location of setae
  109. This Class is mostly terrestrial annelids "earthworms" they are all deposit feedsd and is presnce in sign of fertile soil they have _______ developement and no larval form
    Oligochaeta / direct
  110. Cross fertilized whenever they meet another of their species (Oligochaeta )
  111. This class is leeches they are mostly feshwater or humid terriestrail, they are ________ not parasites
    Hirudinea / direct
  112. Most of the year leeches are negatively _________ but become postively ________ when they need to take a blood meal because ---- most organisms are postively ____________
  113. What is the medical importance of leeches
    • Removes excessive fluid build-up when limbs reattached
    • promotes healing
  114. This Phylum is animals with jointed feet such as the horsecrabs copepods crustatceans spiders scorpins insects their exoseleton is made up of _________ and have ________ circulatory system along with a _______ life cycle
    Arthropoda / chitin/ open / biphasic
  115. This occurs in Arthropoda its when the body is divided into regions with specific functions such as __________ which is taken to the extreme
    Tagmatization / metamarism
  116. This is a life cyle with larvaw and adults figger in mporphology and ecology
    It allows for great nunmber of each group with much intraspecifc competion
    (Occurs in Arthropoda)
  117. This subphylum includs the horseshoe crabs spiders mites and ticks,
  118. This includes spiders, scoripions ticks mites harvastmen
  119. Hollow, used for injecting vemom/digestive juices into prey (used by spiders)
  120. These are specialized excretory glandsd used by spiders which remove waste while converving water
    Malpihian tubules
  121. The chelicera in this animal is very small pedipalps are enlarged, opisthosoma divided into preabdomen and postadomen also known as ________ and _________ they have __________ fertalziation and _________care
    Scorpions / posion gland / stinger/ internal/ parental
  122. These are ectoparasites of plants and animals they are prosoma and opisthosoma fused there chilcera and pedipalps modified for pericing biting and sucking
    Mites and ticks
  123. This demodex folliculorum found on human hair
  124. Causes scabies the female tunnel through skin laying eggs, secretions cause itching and rash which is highly contagious
    Sarcoptes scabies
  125. What are not true spiders
    Harvestmen and daddylong legs
  126. These spiders are fused with prosoma and opithosoma there antipreor mechanism is
    • Detattachable legs
    • Vomit
    • Produce HCN
  127. This subphylum constist of shrimp crayfish lobster crab copecods barnacles (exclude mariness)
  128. The Crustacea differ from chelicerates and uniramin in 2 ways the Crust have :
    • 2 antenae
    • Biramous appendages
  129. These crusts are scavegers. have 2 ants, feeding appendages and walking legs, swimmerettes (used breeding) and uropods (used for swimming and escape)
    • Crayfish
    • Crabs
    • Lobsters
  130. These crust body covered by a signle carapace ; the female reproduces aex. parthogentically in spring and summer, sex reproduction in autumn and important component of food webs
    Water fleas
  131. These Crust larvae dispersal stage, adults sessile, appendages modifed for filter feeding; 1srt appen. used as an anchor
  132. These. have 1 pair of antenas these constist of milipeders centapeds and insects; they are the 1st to trasistion to land
  133. This Unirmia is a scavenger they have 2 pairs of feet per segament
  134. This Unirmia is carnivours and has 1 pair of feet per segment (they do not have alot of wax and live in most wet enviroment)
  135. This Unirmia has 3 pairs walking legs 1 pair of wings and 1 pair of anteneas, they have a head thoraz and abdomen, the 3 legs must always come in contact with the ground while walking, wings with hollow veins for _______- and ___________tubules that help empties wastes and save water
    Insect / support/ milipighian
  136. How do insects breathe?
  137. Whats are they two sensery structures for hearing for insects
    • Johnsons organs
    • Temparial organs
  138. this organ is machanorecepotor at bas of ante.
    Johnson's organ
  139. This organ is a mechanoreceptor at the bast of legs and crickets and katydid
    Temparial organs
  140. The sensory structures for sight is eyes _____ and able to detect down to ____nm
    Compound / 300
  141. What are the three delevopemental patterns of insects
    • Ametabolous
    • Paurometablous
    • Holometaboulous
  142. a developmental pattern that means "without change" ; larve and adults similar in appearance, differ in sex maturity, unspecified number of molts
    eg Silverfish
  143. a developmental pattern means small changes; specific number of molts between eggs and adults, each molts results in wing genital changes and sizes
  144. a developmental pattern means whole change , larvae and adults completely differ in both morphogy and ecology, transition btw larvaw and adults called __________
    eg Butterflies and house flies
    Holometablous / metamorphis
  145. Groups called ______ perform specific tasks
    ________ : queen bees, worker bees, soliders, scouts
    ________: drones reproductuve, haploid
    Castes/ Female / male
  146. This Phylum includes sea urchin, sea cumumbers, sea urchines, sand dollars , they are marine. They have __________ symmetry and have a __________ vascular system
    Echinodermata / pentaradia / Water
  147. This vascular has ring and nadial canals , they are ____________ water inlet/equalizes pressure inside and outside of animals and are typically external
    Water / madreporite
  148. This echinodermata has a fragmentation can result in regentration of missing parts therefore formation of new indivuals ; sexual reproduction produces cilited larvvea important for dispersion
  149. This echinodermata has long spines adaptations for lodging into crevice for protection against wave action
    Sea Urchines
  150. These enchinodermata lives in sand bottom areas, short spines
  151. Sanddollars
  152. This encinodermata is unsuals because its _________________ embedded into body wall not as plates; tubefeet modifeed and cone around moth as tentcles, adults revert back to _________ symmetry
    sea cucumbers / ossicles / bilateral