Health is affected by an individual�s status on the health-illness continuum as well as environmental conditions.
A balance of input and output. A. When energy output exceeds input, illness results. B. Wellness occurs when more energy is generated than expended.
As we progress through the stages of development, we develop understanding and skills to help us deal with illness.
When disease, loss, or other disruptions occur at a younger age than expected, they change our perception of the event and may present a greater challenge to our coping skills than disruptions that are expected.
Occurs suddenly and lasts for a limited amount of time.
Lasts for a long period of time, usually up to 6 months or more, often for a lifetime.
Occurs when symptoms are minimal to none.
Occurs when symptoms intensify.
Hardiness is described as
Developing a very strong positive force to live � and enjoying the fight!
A method of understanding people as a combination of psychological and social events.
Who we are (the self) is subject to change through social and environmental influence.
Internal locus of control
People who allow their inner voice to influence their self-concept
External locus of control
People who attribute control of their situation to external factors, including other people, institutions, and God.
Your mental image of your physical self, including physical appearance and physical functioning.
The actions a person takes and the behaviors he demonstrates in fulfilling a role.
A mismatch between role expectations and role performance.
Interpersonal role conflict
Your ideas about how you perform may be different from your instructors
When two roles make competing demands on an individual
Your view of yourself as a unique human being, different and separate from all others.
How well a person likes himself.
A vague, emotional response to a known or unknown threat (uneasy feeling of discomfort or dread).
A specific, cognitive response to a known threat.
How much anxiety is present
How long has the anxiety been present
An essential reaction to a realistic danger or threat to our physical or psychological integrity. Enables survival.
Out of proportion to the situation and lasts long after the threat is over, perhaps causing a person to change her lifestyle.
Are used either consciously or unconsciously to relieve anxiety
Refusing to acknowledge the existence of a real situation or associated feelings
Transferring feelings from one target to another that seems less threatening.
A loss of ability to differentiate self from nonself or by impaired reality testing, often accompanied by hallucinations and delusions.
Used to describe a feeling of sadness or �the blues� but with characteristic symptoms and often devastating consequences if left untreated
Major depressive disorder
Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day for at least two weeks
A loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities.
Delirium (Acute confusion)
An acute and potentially reversible disturbance of consciousness and cognition in response to underlying medical or mental illnesses, drug detoxicity, and a variety of other causes.
An irreversible decline in mental abilities.
The undesired change or removal of a valued object, person, or situation.
Can be identified by others, not just the person experiencing it
Is, internal; it is identified only by the person experiencing it
Includes injuries, removal of an organ, and/or loss of function
Usually challenge our belief system in areas of sexuality, control, fairness, meaning, and trust
Actual loss of objects that are important to the person because of their costs or sentimental value
A term for perceived or psychological loss
The physical, psychological, and spiritual responses to a loss
Consists of actions associated with grief
The period of mourning and adjustment time after a loss
Normal grief; the natural response to a loss
Is distinguished from uncomplicated grief by length of time and intensity of emotion
Begins as normal grief but continues long term, with little resolution of feelings and inability to rejoin normal life.
When the person is grieving but expressing the grief through other types of behavior
Grief that is put off until a later time
Is experienced before a loss occurs
The irreversible cessation of all functions of the brain, including the brain stem
The irreversible cessation of all �higher� brain functions (consciousness, memory, cognitive functioning, and reasoning)
A prolonged, deep state of unconsciousness lasting days or even years
Persistent vegetative state (PVS)
Sometimes follows a coma, the person does not respond to stimuli, is unaware of the environment, and has not cognition or affected mental functions
A cyclic pattern consisting of a 10- to 60- second period of apnea and then a gradual increase in depth and rate of respirations. Respirations gradually become slow and shallow, and then the cycle begins again.
Aggressively planned, holistic comfort care
A document prepared by a competent person giving instructions regarding medical care if that person becomes unable to make decisions
Durable power of attorney or healthcare proxy
When a competent person names another individual to make decisions regarding his healthcare choices under certain conditions when he is unable to do so.
An order to NOT attempt resuscitation of the patient in the event of cardiac or respiratory failure.
Making available that which is needed for the patient to end his own life
Refers to deliberately ending of a life of someone suffering for a terminal or incurable illness
Occurs as a result of a direct action (giving meds)
Occurs as a result of a lack of action (withholding medications, food)
A medical exam of the body to determine the cause of death
A counseling technique used when grief therapy is indicated
The stiffening of the body after death caused by the contraction of muscles from lack of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), occurring around 2-4 hours after death
Occurs when the blood stops circulating; body temperature drops about 1.88 degrees F per hour until it reaches room temperature
The bluish and mottled look of the body is caused by the breakdown of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin.