GEOL109.4

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nanananako
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83314
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GEOL109.4
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2011-05-02 18:48:10
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GEOL109
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GEOL 109 exam 4
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  1. 3 steps to complex life
    • chemosynthesis
    • biosynthesis
    • development of complex chemical machinery: DNA, RNA
  2. primordial soup
    • hypothesis of early life
    • products of chemosynthesis collecting in surface waters and clumping together
  3. soup and sandwich hypothesis
    • hypothesis of early life
    • modification of primordial soup
    • spaces between mica layers may have provided exactly the right conditions for earliest life
  4. black smokers
    • early life hypothesis
    • vents in the ocean
  5. panspermia
    • early life hypothesis
    • seeds of life came from meteorite
  6. 1st person to recognize that the fossils are from ancient life and is more than 1 event
    Leonardo da Vinci
  7. fossil must be at least how many years old?
    10,000
  8. paleontology
    geological implications
  9. paleobiology
    ancient biological implications
  10. geobiology
    geological and ancient biological implications
  11. systematic
    • describing morphology
    • applying taxonomy
  12. functional morphology
    think how body parts work
  13. paleoecology
    interactions of different organisms
  14. community structure
    interactions between different species
  15. paleoclimatology
    infer past climates
  16. taphonomy
    processes of fossilization
  17. biostratigraphy
    dating technique using fossils
  18. age of Earth
    4.6 billion
  19. oldest fossils
    3.5 billion
  20. photosynthesis (when?)
    3-3.5 billion
  21. stromatolites (early photosynthesizers) abundant when
    2.5 billion
  22. 1st eukaryotic cells (with nucleus)
    1.5 billion
  23. 1st multicellular organisms (when)
    700 million
  24. early life was
    • anaerobic
    • absence of oxygen
  25. membrane invagination
    a cell folded into itself and formed a nucleus
  26. symbiosis
    2 independent prokaryotic cells combined and formed a nucleus
  27. 1st skeletonized metazoans (animals) (when)
    543 million years ago
  28. events in Ordovician (2)
    • 1st vertebrates: jawless fish
    • increase in marine invertebrate
  29. events in Silurian (2)
    • Golden Age of Fish: jawed
    • 1st invertebrates and plants
  30. events in Devonian (2)
    • 1st land vertebrates
    • armored fish
  31. events in Carboniferous (4)
    • symnosperms (conifer, no flower)
    • early reptiles
    • 1st winged insects
    • coal deposits
  32. events in Permian (3)
    • Pangaea
    • largest mass extinction ("The Great Dying")
    • toxic sea water
  33. events in Triassic (1)
    1st beetles, mammals, and dinosaurs
  34. events in Jurassic (1)
    1st birds
  35. events in Cretaceous (4)
    • 1st flowering plants
    • modern birds
    • mass extinction
    • mammal radiation
  36. mass extinction in Cretaceous (4)
    • elevated CO2
    • extreme global warming
    • high sea level
    • meteor hit
  37. events in Tertiary (2)
    • hominids
    • flower plants radiation
  38. when did Homo sapience appear?
    100-200,000 years ago
  39. Jack Sepkoski
    pioneering contributions to our understanding of fossil records and diversification of animal life
  40. Sepkoski curve
    shows 3 major evolutionary faunas and 5 mass extinctions
  41. 3 major evolutionary faunas
    • Cambrian
    • Paleozoic
    • Modern
  42. 5 mass extinctions
    • late Ordovician
    • late Devonian
    • end Permian
    • end Triassic
    • K/T
  43. end-Pleistocene Megafaunal extinctions
    what is it
    how did it happen
    • big mammals went out in multiple continents
    • over-kill by humans?
    • climate change
  44. K/T
    • extinction of dinosaurs
    • radiation of mammals
  45. delayed extinction
    • dodo extinction 1681 by humans
    • calvaria tree: last generation because of dodo's extinction (zombie taxa)

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