HIS 348

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HIS 348
2011-05-02 19:00:51
History French NKU

These cards are a study guide for Dr. LeRoy's History of France class at NKU. GOD SAVE ME.
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  1. Franco-Prussian War
    Looking for a distraction from the people’s discontent with the regime, Bismarck was trying to unite all Germans by attacking Denmark. The vacancy to the Spanish throne caused Prussia and France to initiate battles. France was not well planned for war. Napoleon III captured and created the Third Republic. Germany becomes united at Versailles.
  2. Paris Commune
    put Paris against the rest of France, again. February of 1831, Adolph Thiers comes into power; self-proclaimed monarchist. Skeptical of Paris, this new government is moved to Versailles. Location was not well-liked because of the times to Absolute Monarchy.
  3. Treaty of Frankfurt
    in 1871, Alsace and Lorraine are annexed from France because of past German ties. By taking these two pieces of land, Germany becomes the number 1 power in the world (huge industries here); leads to french teachers to teach ‘payback’.
  4. Bloody week
    Theirs orders a ‘take no prisoner’ attack on Paris; a lot of hand-to-hand combat. Monuments were destroyed and military took over. Nearly 25,000 dead in from one week of battle in May 1871
  5. Alfred Dreyfus
    Captain in the French army, Dreyfus was accused of being a spy when a cleaning lady found a letter in a trash can at a German embassy. Dreyfus, being a Jew and Alsatian was the perfect suspect. He spoke Germen well and was the only Jew in the General Staff; seen as a loner. People jumped to conclusions and convicted on next-to-nothing evidence. “To be Jewish is to be un-French’. Dreyfus was eventually acquitted of the charges but new case was opened and said that there might be more than one spy involved. He was found guilty in a second trial, but pardoned by president (scared that if they admitted they were wrong and didn’t try him again the public would get pissed).
  6. Laic laws
    absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs; lead to equality for all religions. Separation of Church and State
  7. Dreyfus Affair
    rocked the third republic to the foundation. Brought on new nationalism ideas (more right winged) and new political parties were formed. The left-wings become more pacifist. It brought out the depth of anti-Semitism in France. It brought conflict between the two ‘visions’ of France: the rational and individualistic people against the emotional and traditional people.
  8. “J’accuse”
    A book about French families over generations; popular voice for the poor
  9. Emile Zola
    wrote the book “J’accuse”, she was the voice of the poor. Blaming the armies and government and everyone else for the injustice of Dreyfus’ and she brought out all of the evidence that was never showed and she was sued
  10. Eiffel Tower
    the tallest building in France and one of the most recognizable buildings in all of the world. Built in 1899 for the World Fair, it was suppose to only be up for two decades but the vast popularity it grew made the French keep it. The tower is named after the designer of it. World’s tallest building for 41 years and stands at 1,000+ feet, Radio towers added to it in mid 20thcentury.
  11. Universal Exposition of 1889
    France tried to regain their place as the world’s strongest power. Using economical exploitations of local countries for profits (but most markets were already saturated). This idea leads to the spreading f Christian ideas to the less fortunate nations (God, Glory and Gold).
  12. French Indochina
    part of the French colonial empire including Cambodia and Vietnam then Laos soon after
  13. La Belle Epoque
    period characterized by new technological and medical discoveries and optimisms; electric light, automobiles, telephones, etc
  14. Louis Pasteur
    created vaccines for anthrax and rabies and one of the founders of microbiology
  15. Louis and Marie
    She was the first female professor at the University of France and won 2 Nobel prizes for discovering radium
  16. Bicycle
    cheaper than riding a horse and faster than walking
  17. Louis Blériot
    In 1809, he was the first to cross the English Channel; very dangerous
  18. Georges Méliès
    He was famous for early developments in the cinema; very innovative in special effects; first ‘cinemagician’
  19. Revanchisme
    The spirit of revenge that France had against Germany post-Franco-Prussian War
  20. Triple Alliance
    Italy joins the duel alliance of Austria-Hungary and Germany
  21. Franco-Russian Alliance
    1894; put Germany on a 2-Front war
  22. Fashoda crisis
    France and Britain come close to battle of a piece of land in Africa
  23. Entente Cordiale
    “let’s be friends without being friends”; people who were once apart are now coming together; hypothetical military talks went into the works.
  24. Triple Entente
    France, Britain and Russia join sides and drew lines for a war. If ONE of these nations were attacked, all six went to war.
  25. Moroccan crises
    Germany trying to influence African countries and France gains full support from GB and USA (2nd one)
  26. Jean Jaurès
    wanted to form a strike with other nations in a similar position against the war. If this strike was successful, the war would not have happened. Jaures had the idea to call it off, but was killed by a right-winged nut before the chance could be taken.
  27. Elan
    The spirit to win
  28. Plan XVII
    the all out offensive battle plan France settled for, no one wanted to be on the defense. France was going to use light ammo and artillery.
  29. Schlieffen Plan
    fight two single-front wars at the same time; a swift victory against France and then a concentrated attack against Russia. They thought this would only take 6 weeks. They wanted to attack through Belgium but they resisted and set them back 48 hours. In defense of Belgium, GB declares war on Germany.
  30. General Joffre
    French general had the all-or-nothing effort to stop the German advance. Germany had started to ‘run out of steam’. He successfully defended Paris with defensive soldiers on an all-out offensive strike
  31. Race to the Sea
    in 14’, Germany wanted to get to the sea to control the war-front. It was a race to outflank the opposing side and lead to the beginning of trench wars
  32. Les poilus
    description the soldiers; hairy, un-kept. The phrase became a badge of honor. These men stunk and were rugged from being on the front-lines of battle
  33. Trenches
    brought the war to a primitive battling state (bring in no man's land and race to the sea)
  34. No-man’s land
    the land between trenches where you were most likely to die
  35. Trench foot
    when your foot sat in the water for hours upon hours for days at a time, your foot got this nasty rash/infection and usually the only way to fix it was to amputate
  36. Battle of Verdun
    the epicenter of hell; 10% of the men who died did from their own artillery. This was an important battle because France had an uphill advantage for once (on a full on defensive). There was a road from Verdun to Paris that the German’s wanted. This area also protruded into German territory and posed a great threat. Germany wanted to bleed out France and make GB surrender; it was normally a pretty quiet and slow area. Heavy rains set the attack bet several days, gives France plenty of time to reinforce their area. 171K die at Dead Man’s Hill; German’s gain no land.
  37. The Sacred Way
    Petain would not have a soldier killed for no reason, soldiers loved him; officers not so much. Kept his soldiers fresh; switching out the front lines every 2 or 3 weeks; 80% of the French army was involved in Verdun. Germans had an 80% mortality rate, France’s was just 20%
  38. General Philippe Pétain
    General of the French in battle of Verdun. Turned the battle into an artillery battle and was only a general because there was a shortage. He always went against the grain. He was seen as a hero
  39. Armistice 1918
    the end to WWI; Germany never declared surrender though. It was completed and signed on the five year anniversary of Ferdinand’s death and at Versailled to rub it in Germany’s face pretty much
  40. Alsace-Lorraine
    Land taken from France during the Franco-Prussian war that was once again seized back to France post-WW1 and they were finally happy.
  41. What drove France to build a vast colonial empire?
    In a battle for colonial expansion, not only France, but GB, Belgium, Italy is all capable of spreading their imperial power to other nations. France wanted to regain their status as the world’s superpower. Along with all of the other nations, France was in it for the weapons, power and profits. Countries like the US were taking islands such as Hawaii for naval base purposes. France was spreading their republic powers to smaller, less powerful nations to gain economic exploits of goods (didn’t work out too well, market was saturated already). France wanted to spread the 3Gs: God, Glory and Gold. God stood for Western Civilization; not just Christianity and the third Republics ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity. This whole expansion was seen as Darwinism and that “only the strongest nations would survive”.
  42. Reflect on France’s experience in World War I. What may explain that the war so traumatized the nation?
    World War I took a great toll on France. They suffered 1.4 million casualties of war. France’s casualties represent 11% of the total population. 20 million men were left wounded; crippled, amputated limbs or disfigured bodies. Most men came home depressed and drained. With a total damage cost of 337 billion, all of Europe was put into debt; causing America to step in an make out substantial loans to help countries. Though they did get back Alsace and Lorraine, it came at a huge cost. The damages that hit France ran up 33 billion dollars and Germany and their allies had to pay back in 500 million dollar increments a year… for 66 years. This effected their industry, especially the coal mines and agriculture. The birthrates post-war dropped significantly so the overall population of well-aged soldiers (20 years later for ww2) would be significantly less.
  43. Consider the importance of technology in the evolution of French society.
    Tank, photography, guns, planes, etc