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Name the achievements of this monarch: Alexander I
He gave the poles freedom and they rebelled. When they went to put down the rebellion, he asked his brother for help but then young army officers rebelled as well.
Name the achievements of this monarch: Nicholas I
The Decembrist rebellion occured under his rule, but he used the secret police for censoring and oppression. He fought/lost the Crimean War.
Name the achievements of this monarch: Alexander II
He relaxed the use of the secret popo. Then, he emancipated the serfs, but they had to pay for their emancipation or they would go to a mir that evenly distributed its taxes among the residents. He enstated zemstves which were local assemblies elected by the people. Only the rich, however, were elected. Eventually, the anarchists decided they wanted to get rid of the government (called Bakunin) so they blew the Czar up.
Name the achievements of this monarch: Alexander III
He saw his dad (Alex II) all blown up so he used the police to terrorize people and force Russian culture. He organized pogroms (attacks on Jews).
What three key events made people dislike Nicholas II?
The loss of the Russo-Japanese war, the 1905 Revolution, and Bloody Sunday. The army, however, was loyal until 1917.
What was congress called in Russia?
What aspects of Nicholas II's life made him a bad ruler?
- He didn't want to be Czar
- He spent a ton of time with his family in the Palace of Alexander and he was cut off from politics
- He liked glamour, not politics (see photo)
- Hemophiliac son Alexi
Who were the Cossacs?
Horsemen who fought to support the Czar.
Who was Czarina Alexandra's most trusted advisor?
Raspuin, because he made Alexi feel better
How did Rasputin smell?
When the Czar was fighting Germany in the West, who ruled?
Alexandra and Rasputin
The Russians were poor and starving, so they rebelled. What leader arose? What two sides fought in the Bolshevik Revolution?
- V.I. Lenin
- Red and White (Lenin vs. errybady else)
What government was established when Lenin killed the last Czar? Who headed it?
- Provisional Gov.
- Alexander Kerensky
The provisional government failed in a large offense they planned against Germany so people wanted a new constitution. What happened then?
They elected a group of people who would write one, but the people who were elected were not favorable to Lenin, so before they could meet he staged a coup and brought them down.
Lenin stopped fighting in _________ and began fighting in _________.
How did Lenin describe his party, the Bolsheviks?
The Vanguard of the Proletariat (the forefront of the working class)
How did Marx's and Lenin's ideas differ?
Marx thought the revolution must happen naturally, on its own. He said that the little group would rise up and overthrow the larger one. Lenin said you should make it happen with total dedication. The theory was called Marxist-Leninist.
When did Lenin get rid of the provisional government?
Who was Leon trotsky? He was a communist leader of the Red army.
How did Trotsky and Stalin's views differ?
Trotsky wanted to spread communism internationally and Stalin wanted to keep it in Russia.
What is nationalization?
It's when the government owns the factors of production and controls prices, goods sold, etc.
How did nationalization case farmers to produce less? What did the government do to solve this?
- The state set prices that afforded the farmers no profit, so the farmers stopped producing goods and Russians went hungry
- The government (Lenin) came up with the NEP (new economic program) that let farmers choose their price after selling a certain amount of product at a set price.
Why did Stalin beat Trotsky in election?
Trotsky was confident that his good speaking abilities would let him win.
What is central planning?
A group of people decide how things are produced in a country. It's absolute economic control, even more so than nationalization.
Who had a bunch of five year plans? What program did he eliminate?
When Stalin consolidated small farms into large, collective ones, what benefit arose?
The farmers had enough capitol to be able to bargain for heavy machinery (tractors, etc.) which increased effeciency.
Russian farmers, laborers, etc. who did not meet their production quotas were named ________. The people who did well were named ______.
- Enemies of the state
- Heroes of the people
- They really used a lot of nationalism to motivate their workers.
How did Russia get money to industrialize?
They made farmers produce more, and they sold surplus product (and then some that was needed to feed the hungry) and sold it internationally. They became the 3rd largest industrial power behind Germany and the US.
Who were Kulaks? How did they feel about the lofty production goals?
- They were owners of large farms
- They hated it so they killed animals and burned their crops. Stalin found out and let them starve (they did because he took what little they didn't burn).
Name some social stipulations in Russia.
No labor unions, no freedom of press, art, literature, and science were controlled, the secret police (KGB) had records on many people and they declared people enemies of the state and killed them.
Explain the Great Purge Trials
Stalin's KGB forced people to confess to doing things they hadn't. Stalin wanted to get rid of all of his political opponents, as well as instill fear in the population. The first trial was of 16 old, respected Bolshevik leaders who Stalin feared were too powerful.
What major groups did Stalin purge in the purge?
- His government party
- Millions of innocent and (sortof) guilty citizens
What did Stalin do with the people who lost the Purge Trials?
They were killed or sent to concentration camps called Gulag
When was the Washington Naval Conference held? What did it do?
- It limited the number of ships per country and reduced the number of weapons. The Locarno meatings made the Locarno treaties which had a very similar effect.
What pact, initially signed between England and France, said that they would not use war to resolve conflicts?
- 65 other nations signed on in the 1920s
When Democracy started becoming common, all men had the right to vote (in Democratic states). What did women want/do?
- Universal suffrage
- They went on protests and in Britain they were sent to jail where they refused to eat so they were force fed. They got it around the 1930s.
Name some government benefits people started to get in the 30s.
Pensions, social security, workers compensation, sickess insurance
What was the Weimar Republic?
It was established in Germany after WWI.
People wanted to get rid of the Weimar Republic. Who was the perosn that led the Spartacist rebellion against them?
- Rosa Luxemburg
- Her rebellion was put down
The ____ Putsch and the _______ Putsch (led by ______) were attempts to overthrow the ________. They were both stopped by the _____.
- Beer Hall
- Weimar Republic
What three things caused the great depression?
- Farmers took out loans to expand their farms as the price of goods rose. When farmers in other countries came back to farm after the war, the farmers defaulted on their loans.
- People raised the prices of their goods, but their employees' wages weren't raised as much. The employees couldn't pay for goods.
- People started buying stocks, and then when they got really valuable they sold them. The stocks basically became worthless.
What is Fascism?
The government directs the economy and decids what to produce, how to produce tit, and who gets it. The factors of production, however, were still privately owned.
How did Benito Mussolini become the dictator?
He focused on Italy's unemployment, disorder, and people's desire to take their neighbors' lands. The Italians were also mad about how they basically got nothing in the Treaty of Versailles. Benito said he would fix things, so he took his army of black shirts and marched to Rome where Victor Emmanuel III refused to fight. He then named him prime minister.
How did Hitler come to power?
He said he could help the economy, overthrow the Weimar Republic, and he opposed the Treaty of Versailles.
Hitler opposed _____ and _______.
What did Hitler call himself?
How did Hitler fare in Reichstag (congress).
His party rapidly gained seats, but they started losing some to communism, so he blamed them for the fire at the Reichstag.
Who named Hitler to chancellor? Why?
- President Hindenberg
- His officers, family, and friends wanted him to .