Ch 1:Biology and the Tree of Life
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What are living things?
- 1. They use energy to do work
- 2. They are made of cells
- 3. They carry and process information
- 4. They reproduce
- 5. They evolve
Study of modern Biology developed on two great theories which are?
- 1. The cell theory
- 2. The theory of evolution bynatural selection
What is a theory?
A generalized phenomenon
Most theories have two components which are?
- *Pattern component(based on observation)
- *Process component(based on experimentation)
The cell theory
- All organisms are made of cells (pattern)
- and all cells come from preexisting cells (process)
Who observed cells first?
Do cells arise fromother cells?
Are there spontaneous generations (Cells arise fromnon-living matter)?
What was the experiment Pasteur used to prove cells come from other living cells?
- *Cells grew with an open flask
- *Cells didn't grow when there was a neck attached to the flask
What is the theory of evolution by natural selection?
Characteristics of populations change over time(pattern)
Because..individuals with some heritable characterssurvive better and reproduce better than otherindividuals. This is known as natural selection.(process)
What is the example of natural selection using the moths and tree?
Dark moths were more visible.they got eaten by birds. white moths were more visible on dark tree trunks.they got eaten by birds.
Tree trunks became darker due to pollution The result: Population of moths changed from white to dark. Evolution by natural selection.
Artificial selection vs. natural selection
Artificial selection is when humans select certain individuals for the benefit of humans
.Example: farmers select maize for high protein,strawberries for high sugar content,animals for better meat quality,flowers for colors, fragrance….
The tree of life is scientifically known as...
The Evolutionary Tree (phylogenetic tree)
What are the tree domains?
- 1. Domain Bacteria
- 2. Domain Archae
- 3. Domain Eukarya
What is the difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells?
- -Eukaryotic cells are nucleus bound
- -Prokaryotic cells don't have a nucleus and are smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
Explain early cell life
- -Believed to be prokaryotic type cell
- -Contained some RNA as genetic material
- -And surrounded by a membrane
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