Lg Animal Final - Pediatrics

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  1. Stages of Parturation
    Stage 1
    Stage 2
    Stage 3
    • 1. uterine contractions and fetal positionings. restless, paw, up and down, kick at belly, sweating. 1-2 hours
    • 2. active labor - breaking of water, abdominal pushing, appearance of fetal membrane, then front legs, head and rest of foal. <30 min
    • 3. expulsion of placenta. 1-3 hours
  2. Red Bag
    • premature placenta seperation
    • sac must be ripped open and foal pulled out immediately
    • once the placenta seperates, the foal is deprived of oxygen
    • most of these foals die, or require extensive care
  3. Post-foaling exam
    1. Mare
    2. Placenta
    3. Udder
    • 1. HR, mucous membranes, gut sounds, perineal swelling, udder development, vulvar swelling/lacerations, vaginal bruising, cervical lacerations, uterine contractions, discharge.
    • 2. check for completeness, abnormalities (color/texture), weight (<15 lb)
    • 3. milk vs. colostrum. firmness - is foal nursing off both teats
  4. Foal exam (post foaling)
    • check all body systems - umbilicus, joints, nursing, enema (milk manure vs. muconium)
    • heart murmers are ok until day 3 of age
  5. Dystocia
    • Most common in horses of all live stock, but only 1% of pregnancies
    • Usually due to fetal malpositioning
    • Stage 2 of labor is very fast and violent, so corrections must be made quickly
    • First thing that occures is constriction of umbilical chord - asphyxiation
    • Mutation, fetotomy or C-section
  6. Retained placenta
    • Lack of expulsion >3hrs after foaling
    • May be whole placenta or just a piece
    • Oxytocin will help with expulsion as well as tying a weight to the placenta
    • After care is CRITICAL - NSAIDs, antibiotics, aggressive uterine lavage
    • Complications: laminitis, metritis
  7. Lacerations
    1. Cervical
    2. Vulvar
    3. RV fistula
    • 1. Wait 30 days to rebreed
    • 2. Heal by second-intention
    • 3. Keep mare on high fiber, moist diets until foal is weaned, then repair - no effect on fertility
  8. Metritis/Laminitis
    • Severe and life-threatening
    • Antibiotics (IU and IV/IM), NSAIDs
    • IV and oral fluids
    • Uterine lavage
    • Supportive care
  9. Colic/Ruptures
    • Impaction colics, displacements, torsions
    • Uterine rupture - FATAL
    • Middle uterine artery rupture - bleed into broad ligament; very painful, life-threatening
  10. Dummy Foals
    • Neonatal Maljustment Syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
    • Oxygen deprivation at birth, appear normal for 2-5 days, then "dummy out"
    • Intensive supportive care - feeding, fluids, antibiotics, anti-ulcer meds, NSAIDs, oxygen
  11. Genetic Disorders
    • NI
    • CID
    • HYPP
  12. Failure of Passive Transfer
    • IGG<400mg/dl - inadequate (poor colostrum, poor absorption, or dripped out prior to foaling)
    • IGG between 400-800mg/dl - watch
    • IGG>800 mg/dl - good

    • Treatment: frozen colostrum or plasma - if <24hr old
    • transfusion - tranquilize foal, lay on ground and give plasma slowly IV
  13. Diarrhea
    • Foal Heat Diarrhea: 7-10 days of age, normal and requires minimal Tx (peptobismol, wash rump, decrease mare's grains)
    • Clostridium, Salmonella, E. coli, Rotavirus
    • Treatment: antibiotics, fluids, enteral/parenteral feeding, NSAIDs, antiulcer meds, probiotics, wormers, chelating agents (charcoal, diatimatious earth), hyperimmune serum
  14. Colic/Ruptured Bladder
    • Colic: meconium impaction, congenital defects (atresia ani/coli, lethal whites)
    • Ruptured Bladder: occures at birth, more common in colts, increase in abdominal size and colic by day 2-3. MUST treat electrolyte (hypokalemia) and fluid disorders BEFORE surgery!
  15. Hernias
    • May be congenital or aquired
    • Umbilical: very common. most close on their own if less than 2 fingers.
    • Inguinal/Scrotal: common in Standardbred and Saddlebred colts, may require surgical closure.
    • Risk of colic! watch.
  16. Pneumonia
    • Primary: Rhodococcus
    • Secondary: aspiration from cleft palate, white muscle disease, HYPP, broken ribs
    • Diagnosis: physical exam, radiographs, cbc
    • Treatment: aggressively with antibiotics, oxygen, NSAIDs, antiulcer meds
  17. Limb Deformities
    • Can be congenital or aquired
    • Angular: side to side. most angular deformities resolve on their own unless severe or if bones are not calcified.
    • Flexure: front to back. treat with tetracycline at birth or surgery later on.
    • Bandaging, casting, or splinting may be needed.
  18. Orphan Foals
    • Twin, rejected, non-maternal mare, mare dies.
    • Nurse mare, bottle feed/bucket baby
    • Be sure to check IgG; feeding schedule is crucial, antiulcer meds
    • Minimize handling if possible, turnout with other foals - they will become imprinted on humans!
  19. Nurse Mares
    • Usually Draft mares, older; may be mare whose foal had died
    • Blindfold mare, twitch, sedate, hold or tie to wall until mare accepts foal
    • Skin of dead foal tied to new foal
    • Rub foal with mare's feces, urine
    • Vics mare's nostrils
  20. Milk Replacers and Feeding
    • Mare is best (Foal Lac), can also use goat if no other option
    • MUST be fed every 1-2hr (this is critical); as foal ages you can feed every 3-4 hrs
    • Once drinking from bucket well, can feed free choice; switch to replacer pellets
    • Should gain 2-3 lbs per day
  21. Vaccination and Deworming
    • Foals of vaccinated mares start at 4m and booster 5m
    • EEE/WEE/TT, RV/FV (PHF and Rabies can be started at spring of yearling year)
    • Deworm at 2m (DO NOT use Quest on foals), repeat every 2m
    • Foals from unvaccinated mares or unknown history start vaccines at 2m, repeat at 3 and booster at 6m
  22. Signs of Calving
    • Sunken tail head
    • Red, swollen vulva
    • Restlessness
    • 24 hours pre-calving - refuses to feed
    • Seperates from herd
  23. Stages of Calving
    • Same as horse, only different times
    • Stage 1: 12-24 hours
    • Stage 2: 1-3 hours
    • Stage 3: about 12 hours; may remain in for several days and be ok
  24. Dystocia (Bovine)
    • Fairly uncommon, twins
    • Most common reason: calf is too big, "double muscled" calves, heifers first calf
    • Treatment: calf jack, fetotomy, C-section
  25. Care of Neonatal Calf
    • Dairy: calf removed with in 12 hours and raised in a calf pen or calf hutch with straw
    • Free choice milk replacer, milk pellets or treated milk (replacement heifers only - antibiotic residues in veil)
    • Beef: very low rejection rate. weather concerns
  26. Retained Placentas (Bovine)
    • May be retained for several days will no ill effects on cow
    • "Cleaning" - manual removal of placenta
    • Antibiotics and NSAIDs - discard milk
  27. Uterine Prolapse (Bovine)
    • "Casting the bed, cast wethers"
    • Epidural Anesthesia; elevate uterus with sheet/towel, wash uterus with warm water and dilute antiseptic, reduce edema with sugar, manual replacement, suture vulva.
    • Little to no effect on future furtility if no damage to the uterus
  28. Post Parturient Paresis
    • "Milk Fever"
    • Hypocalcemia from massive mobilization of body stores
    • Cool extremities, limp ears, constipation, decreased rumen sounds, decreased body temp, flaccid paralysis (trembling, sternal recumbancy, lateral recumbancy)
    • Respond to IV calcium (SLOW) w/in minutes
    • Prevention is key
  29. Care of Ewe/Doe
    • 6-8w dry period
    • Keep thinner during pregnancy - prevents pregnancy toxemia (ketosis) that usually occures 2-4w before parturation esp. if it has mutiple kids
    • Induce parturation if it does not occur
    • Keep in one pen after birth
  30. Signs of Parturation (Ovine/Caprine)
    • Same stages/times as cow
    • Will also create nests and bag up
    • Check animals "up close" frequently by the same person - they will not lamb if it is a stranger
  31. Parturation (Ewe)
    • Often assisted in the ewe - multiple births
    • Often induced to insure survival in cold weather
    • Given Steroids or PGF2a at 7-8am; will give birth the next afternoon
    • Care of the neonate - must keep warm (straw, heat lamps, 90*F) ensure colostrum intake, ear tag, vE, selenium
    • Castrate, dehorn, dock tails at 3-4 days old
  32. Mastitis
    • The key is to prevent
    • Improve milking technique - keep cow calm, wear gloves, wash and dry udder thoroughly, presquirt, apply milker properly, teat dipping
    • Proper maintainence and machine washing
    • Maintain dry cows properly - dry cow tubes, coating
  33. Mastitis Tests
    • Test all incoming animals before milking them by machine (CMT test effective)
    • Cull cronic mastitis cows
    • Mastitis eradication program - will be difficult and expensive
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Lg Animal Final - Pediatrics
2011-05-03 02:39:42
Lg Animal Final Pediatrics

Lg Animal Final - Pediatrics
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