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2011-05-02 20:54:04

GEOL 109 exam 2
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  1. igneous rocks from from...
    • magma
    • granite
  2. intrusive igneous rocks
    • crystalize below surface
    • cools slowly
    • coarse texture
  3. extrusive igneous rocks
    • crystalize at the surface
    • cool quickly
    • fine grained texture
  4. magma type from high silica to low silica (3)
    • rhyolite
    • andesite
    • basalt
  5. fine --> coarse
    • rhyolite --> granite
    • andesite --> diorite
    • basalt --> gabbro
  6. magma composition from high silica to low silica (4)
    • felsic (granite, rhyolite)
    • intermediate (diorite, andesite)
    • mafic (gabbro, basalt)
    • ultramafic
  7. accresionary wedge
    marine sedimente being pushed towards subduction zone
  8. cementation
    • reduce pore space between sediments
    • water expelled
  9. higher temperature and pressure makes
    metamorphic rocks
  10. low pressure and temperature makes
    sedimentary rocks
  11. igneous + heat and pressure =
  12. contact metamorphism
    magma injected through the ground, increasing the temperature
  13. regional metamorphism
    under mountains
  14. law of horizontality
    layers are always horizontal unless something happens to it later
  15. principle of superposition
    rocks on bottom is older than rocks on the top
  16. cross-cutting relations
    tying layers of different location based on sediments
  17. unconformities
    gaps in geologic time
  18. nonconformity
    contact surface of different types of sediments
  19. angular unconformity
    border of layers that's diagonal and horizontal
  20. disconformity
    the orientation of older strata are parallel to younger strata
  21. biostratigraphy
    use biological fossils to tell relative time
  22. what % of water is in ocean
  23. hydrologic cycle is what type of system
    • closed
    • but an island is an open system
  24. residence time
    • amount (or volume) / rate
    • 12 cookies in a jar, 3 cookies a day
    • residence time = 4 days (12/3)
  25. densest water is what temperature
  26. water table
    boundary between ground and water in the ground
  27. perennial
    stream that has water all year
  28. ephemeral
    stream that sometimes has water
  29. drain basic/water shed/catchment
    smaller streams going into bigger river
  30. cut bank
    outer side of the curve of a river that's going faster and erodes
  31. point bar
    inner side of a curve of a river that's going slower and deposits
  32. oxbow lake
    meandered river ends up with a C-shape lake
  33. cutoff
    the newly disconnected part of an oxbow lake
  34. 10-year flood and 100-year flood
    • 10-year flood: 10% chance of having discharge
    • 100-year flood: 1%
  35. saturation zone
    where there is water in the ground
  36. cone of depression
    well depresses water table
  37. aquifer
    good water flow
  38. aquiclude
    impermeable rock
  39. snowline
    lowest elevation where there is snow all the time
  40. basal flow
    melt the boundary of ice and ground and lubricate
  41. glacial striations
    lines left by glacial movement erosions
  42. pheonicians
    • 1st to explore sea
    • Mediterranean and Red Sea
  43. main ions in seawater
    • chloride (55.07%)
    • sodium (30.62%)
  44. low salinity
    • equator
    • a lot of precipitation
  45. halocline
    depth of ocean where temperature rapidly changes
  46. thermocline
    depth of ocean where temperature rapidly changes
  47. pycnocline
    depth of ocean where density rapidly changes
  48. determines density
    temperature and salinity
  49. Coriolis effect on Earth
    • N hemisphere: right
    • S hemisphere: left
  50. ekman spiral and ekman transport
    • surface current is 45 degrees to the right compared to the wind
    • net transport is defected 90 degrees from the wind to the right
  51. passive vs active continental margins
    • passive margin: no plate boundary
    • active margin: trench
  52. 1/2 wave height =
  53. wave base
    • deep into the water where there is no movement anymore
    • 1/2 wave length
  54. Venus has what % of CO2
  55. troposphere
    • lowest layer
    • weather happens here