Card Set Information
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
all living things
all nonliving things
step in a level or food chain
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
groups of organisms of the same species living in the same area
groups of different populations living in the same area
all organisms that live in the same area along with the environment
group of ecosystems with the same climate and similar dominant communities
highest level of organization
organisms that make their own food from sun/inorganic chemicals
organisms that can't make their own food
only eats plants
eat both plants and animals
use energy from the sun to make organic chemicals for energy
capture energy from source other than sun
a simple series of who eats who
a complex interaction of all the food chains in an ecosystem
chemical substance that an organism requires to live
organism that feeds on plant and animal remains and other dead matter
organism that breaks down and obtains energy from dead organic matter
diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter within each trophic level in a food chain or food web
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecosystem
single nutrient that either is scarce or cycles very slowly, limiting the growth of organisms in an ecosystem
process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
process of converting nitrogen gas into ammonia
conversion of nitrates into nitrogen gas
biotic: grass, trees, animals
abiotic: rocks, air, temperature
using the African savannah as an example, list some biotic and abiotic factors
species, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
list the levels of organization from smallest to largest
observing, experimenting, modeling
what are the 3 main methods used to study ecology?
what are the benefits of creating ecological models?
photo- use sun's energy
chemo- energy source other than sun
what is the difference between photosynthetic autotroph and chemosynthetic autotroph?
one direction: sun to producers, then to consumers and decomposers
which way does energy flow through an ecosystem?
show how much energy is available at each trophic level
what is the basic principle of energy pyramid?
show how much food is available at each trophic level
what is the basic principle of the biomass pyramid?
shows number of individuals at each trophic level
what is the basic principle of the pyramid of numbers?
photosynthesis, respiration, deposition
erosion, volcanic activity
mining, cutting/burning forests, burning fossil fuels
nitrogen is required to make amino acids
why is nitrogen so important to living things?
producers and bacteria use products
why is nitrogen fixation so vital to food chains/webs?
phosphorus forms part of important life-sustaining molecules such as DNA and RNA
why is phosphorus so important to living things?
a large input of a limiting nutrient
what causes algal blooms?