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Drawing a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence. Stereotyping is a result of hasty generalization.
False Cause (post hoc, ergo propter hoc):
"After this, because of this," from the Latin. The arguer infers that because one event follows another in time, the first event must be the cause of the second.
Argument to the Person (Ad Hominem):
"Against the man," from the Latin. An attack on the person making the argument rather than the argument itself.
False Dilemma, or Either-or Fallacy:
Oversimplifying a complex problem by implying that only two alternatives exist.
The arguer predicts that taking a first step will inevitably lead to a second, undesirable step, but does not provide evidence that this will happen.
Circular Reasoning, or Begging the Question:
The arguer makes a statement that assumes that the very question that is being argued has already been proved.
One attacks an argument that isn't really there or an argument that is much weaker or more extreme than the one the opponent is actually making. By setting up a "straw man," the speaker or writer has an argument that's easy to knock down.
"Does not follow," from the Latin. One cannot logically infer the solution from the evidence given because the evidence is irrelevant. Claims, warrants, or reasons fail to connect logically; one point does not follow from another.
Bandwagon, or Appeal to Tradition:
Arguing that because everyone is doing it, or because it has always been done a certain way, we should continue to do it.
When one takes a comparison too far or too seriously, at which point the analogy becomes inaccurate or inconsequential.
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