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2010-02-27 12:44:38
Chapter 9

Learning Principles and applications
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  1. a learning procedure in which associations are made between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
    classical conditioning
  2. a stimulus that does not initially elicit any part of an unconditioned response
    neutral stimulus
  3. an event that elicits a certain predictable response typically without previous training
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  4. an organisms automatic reaction to a stimulus
    unconditioned response (UR)
  5. a once- neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
    conditioned stimulus ( CS)
  6. the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
    conditioned resposne (CR)
  7. responding similary to a range of a similar stimulus
  8. the ability to a respond differently to a similar but distinct stimulus
  9. the gradual disappearance of a conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without without the unconditioned stimulus
  10. learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
    operant conditioning
  11. stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
  12. stimulus that is naturally rewarding such as food or water
    primary reinforcement
  13. stimulus such as money that becomes rewarding through its link with primary reinforcement
    secondary reinforcer
  14. a pattern of reinforcement in whicha specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
    fixed ratio schedule
  15. a pattern of reinforcement in whichg an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained
    variable ratio schedule
  16. a pattern of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elaspe before a response will elicit reinforcement
    fixed interval schedule
  17. a pattern of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
    variable interval schedule
  18. technique in which the desired behavior is molded by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then rerquiring ever closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
  19. learned reactions that follow one another in a sequence. each reactionb producing the signal for the next
    reaction chain
  20. process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
    aversive control
  21. increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
    negative reinforcement
  22. training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
    escape conditioning
  23. training an orgainsm to respond so as to prevent the occurrence of an unpleasant stimulus
    avoidance conditioning
  24. process of altering behavior by observing and imitating the behavior of others
    social learning
  25. form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observation or imitation
    cognitive learning
  26. a mental picture of spatial relationships or relationships between events
    cognitive map
  27. alteration of a behavioral tendency that is not demonstrated by an immedeiate, observable change in behavior
    latent learning
  28. systematic application of learning principles to change peoples actions and feelings
    behavior modification
  29. condition in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards
    token economy