Conservation Final

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AJWLion
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Conservation Final
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2011-05-03 00:06:52
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Conservation Final
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  1. Stabilization of Population is expected to occur .....
    in the 21st Century at around 10 Billion people
  2. Living sustainably is ...
    living within your resources.
  3. In the world there are two major issues:
    • 1. Over population
    • 2. Resource Use
  4. Highly Developed Country
    Countries with complex industrial bases, low rates of population growth, and high per capita incomes.
  5. Moderately Developed Country
    Developing country with a medium level of industrialization and average per capita incomes than those of highly developed countries.
  6. Less Developed County
    Developing country with a low level of industrialization, a high fertility rate, a high infant mortality rate, and a low per capita income.
  7. Renewable Natural Resources
    • Direct Solar Energy
    • Energy of winds, tides, flowing water
    • Fertile soil
    • Clean air
    • Fresh water
    • Biological diversity (forests, food crops, fishes)
  8. Nonrenewable Natural Resources
    • Metallic Mineral (gold, tin)
    • Nonmetalic minerals (salt, phosphates, stone)
    • Fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas)
  9. Ecological Footprint
    “An index of the area of productive land and aquatic ecosystems required to produce the resources used and to assimilate the wasters produced by a defined population at a specified material standard of living, wherever on Earth that land may be located.”
  10. IPAT
    • Used to determine environmental impact (I)
    • P = Number of People
    • A = Affluence, which is a measure of the consumption or amount of resources used per person
    • T = Environmental effects of the technologies used to obtain and consume the resources
  11. Focus on Sustainability (Ways to protect human welfare and natural resource assets) (8)
    • Stabilize human population
    • Prevent pollution where possible
    • Restore degraded environments
    • Protect natural ecosystems
    • Use resources efficiently
    • Educate all boys and girls
    • Prevent and reduce waste
    • Eradicate hunger and poverty
  12. Positive Technology
    Using technology to reduce consumption. Ex. CFC lightbulbs
  13. Negative Technology
    New technology may cause environmental damage. Ex: Computers, Fracking
  14. Sustainability
    Meeting resource needs of the current generation without compromising the resources to meet the needs of future generations.
  15. Tragedy of the Commons
    Occurs when common-pool resources are abused by the public that uses them. (Ex. National Park Service, Forest Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife)
  16. Sustainable Development (Three Factors)
    • Environmentally Sound Decisions
    • Economically Viable Decisions
    • Socially Equitable Decisions

  17. Five-step process in addressing an environmental problem
    • Scientific assessment: Is there a problem? How can it be addressed?
    • Risk analysis: A cost/benefit analysis: What would solutions cost us? What would be the benefit of resolving the problem?
    • Public education and involvement: Involve all stakeholders
    • Political action: Changing policy goals
    • Long-term evaluation: Actions taken must be evaluated over the long term: Surprisingly few projects are evaluated over time. As a result, learning is compromised. The result of failing to evaluate: Reoccurrence of the same problem or origin of a new problem caused by the “solution”
  18. Definition of Ecology
    • Study of the distribution and abundance of organisms.
    • Why are organisms found where they are?
  19. Definition of a Species
    Group of organisms that don't interbreed with other such groups.
  20. Definition of Populations
    Groups of organisms living together in the same place at the same time.
  21. Definition of Community
    A set of interacting species occurring at the same place at the same time.
  22. Definition of an Ecosystem
    A community and its physical environment.
  23. Definition of Landscape Ecology
    Study of the landscape within which species live.
  24. Metapopulations
    • Range is not homogenous: Species are found in suitable habitat throughout their range
    • Populations may be more or less connected by gene slow amongst them.
    • Metapopulations consist of multiple populations that vary in connectivity: Gene flow varies amongst populations, depending on their connectivity to other such populations.
    • Source/sink populations: Sources produce a net surplus of individuals. Sinks receive a net influx of individuals.
    • Habitat Connectivity: Sources and sinks must be connected. Source populations provide emigrants to sink populations.
    • Sources are more important than sinks.
    • Why this is relevant: Source populations must be conserved.
  25. Keystone Species
    • Their influence on community integrity is greater than other species
    • Their influence may be out of proportion with their actual density
    • Loss of keystone species radically alters a community
    • Loss of keystone species usually means reduction in biodiversity
    • May also lead to ecosystem collapse
    • Examples: Prairie Dogs, Sea Otters
  26. Energy Flow
    Flow of energy through an ecosystem. Changes in energy flow can be due to anthropogenic forcing.
  27. Nutrient Cycling
    Cycling of nutrients through an ecosystem. Changes in nutrient cycles can also be caused by anthropogenic forcing.
  28. Abiotic Resource
    Non-living resource.
  29. Biotic Resource
    Living Organism
  30. What is forcing?
    Human caused change in an ecosystem.
  31. First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
    • First Law: Energy can neither be created or destroyed
    • Second law: “…the total amount of energy available to do work decreases over time” (p. 53) I.e., energy
    • conversion isn’t 100% efficient. (This is why
    • large predators are so rare, there isn't much energy left at the top of the food web.)
  32. Trophic Levels
    • Levels within a food web.
    • Primary Producers > Primary Consumers > Secondary Consumers > Tertiary Consumers
  33. Food Web
  34. Net Primary Productivity
    • Productivity after respiration losses (keeping themselves alive) are subtracted.
    • What is left over for the rest of the food web.
    • Basic measurement to determine how productive an ecosystem is.
  35. Gross Primary Productivity
    • The rate at which energy is captured during photosynthesis.
    • This includes all energy, even the energy used to keep organism alive.
  36. Top four most productive ecosystems (high net primary production):
    • Algal beds and reefs
    • Tropical rain forest
    • Swamp and marsh
    • Estuaries
  37. Species Richness:
    • Number of species found within a community (raw count)
    • Used a lot to describe biodiversity because sometimes species evenness is unknown.
  38. Species Evenness:
    Relative abundance of species.
  39. Biodiversity:
    Richness + evenness
  40. Species rich communities aren’t necessarily
    • biodiverse
    • i.e. 10 species, but 1 species makes up about 90% of population (non-biodiverse) vs. 10% species A, 10% species B (biodiverse), etc...
  41. Basic patterns of biodiversity:
    • Terrestrial: The latitudinal gradient; Closer to the equator, higher the biodiversity.
    • Oceanic: Nutrient load: Coastlines (relatively high nutrients and biodiversity); Upwelling zones (Occur wherever ocean currents bump up against continental shelves or coastlines which causes deep water to rise to the surface.)
  42. Other components of Biodiversity:
    • Genetic Diversity: Populations mixing genes.
    • Habitat Diversity: Heterogenous (rainforest), Simplistic (contemporate forest)
  43. Oceanic Biodiversity Patterns
    • Nutrient Load: Higher means more biodiversity
    • Temperature: Relatively stable in oceans; warmer the better for biodiversity.
    • Photic zones: Where light penetrates and plants are found
    • Deep-sea hydrothermal vents: Volcanic vents provide a lot of nutrients, the base of the food web are the Chemosynthetic autotrophs.
  44. Patterns of Terrestrial Biodiversity (4)
    • Latitudinal gradient
    • Climatic stability (Temperature and rainfall)
    • Topographic diversity
    • Peninsular patterns
    • Ecotones
  45. Succession
    Description of changes in a community following a disturbance
  46. Primary succession
    • Succession from bedrock.
    • A state in which soil hasn’t yet formed.
  47. Secondary succession
    Succession from any earlier stage, but post formation of soil. (Still soil!!)
  48. Climax community
    • The end stage of succession
    • Type is determined by temperature, precipitation, and climatic stability
    • Referred to by dominant vegetation (i.e. the biomes)
  49. Ecotones
    • Areas where ecosystems overlap.
    • Can have higher disturbance.
    • Also known as edge habitats.
    • Species found in these areas are generalists – can adapt to many different types of habitats.
  50. Sub-climax Community
    communities where the habitat keeps becoming disturbed before it can reach climax
  51. Ecosystem Services
    Ecosystem Services are the processes by which the environment produces resources that we often take for granted such as clean water, timber, and habitat for fisheries, and pollination of native and agricultural plants.
  52. Why is it important to learn about biomes?
    • Different biomes offer different kinds of ecosystem services.
    • Different biomes have been impacted in different ways by human activity.
    • Different biomes respond differently to anthropogenic forcings.
  53. Name 5 ecosystems and the services provided by them.
  54. Name the 3 types of winds and their latitudes on the globe.
  55. Determinants of biome type
    • Temperature - In general, warmer temperatures lead to higher biodiversity
    • Rainfall - In general, more rainfall leads to higher biodiversity
    • Stability - In general, the more stable the climate, the higher the biodiversity
  56. Triangular Diagram that summarizes that types of biomes that occur.
  57. Tundra
    • Occurs in Extreme northern latitudes.
    • Extremly fragile habitat because of the permafrost.
    • Long harsh winters, short summers.
    • Little precipitation.
    • Geologically young soils.
    • Low species richness and low productivity.
    • Artic and Alpine Tundras the same except that alpine is in higher elevation.
    • Under threat for development and oil drilling.
  58. Boreal Forests
    • Very extensive forests.
    • Conifers and evergreen trees.
    • Covers 11% of the earth's land.
    • Winters extremely cold and severe.
  59. Temperate Deciduous Forest
    • (Also Known at Temperate Broad-Leaf Forest)
    • Deciduous trees mixed in with conifers.
    • Hot summers and cold winters.
    • Productivity limited because of variation in temperature.
    • Can handle a fair amount of disturbance but has been heavily disturbed because of how many people live in it.
    • Exists in temperate zones where you have enough rainfall that trees can grow. Throughout the year rainfall is high enough they are not running a water deficit.
    • Only about 1-2% of the original (never-been-logged) forest remains. Hit really hard by logging.
    • Large list of species that are now absent from Temperate Deciduous Forests.
  60. Temperate Rain Forest
    • Around 10ft of rain/year.
    • Above freezing temperatures all year.
    • One of the most diverse habitats on earth.
    • Found from about Oregon up to about British Columbia.
    • Major controversies revolve around logging.
    • Spotted owls are the poster animal of this biome.
    • Conifers tend to dominate, floor is covered in ferns.
  61. Temperate Zone Grasslands
    • Temperate zone grasslands are found in areas where you don't get enough rainfall for forests.
    • The tall grass prairies have been wiped out more because the area gets more moisture. (About 99% gone in US.)
    • Pretty steady climate type, but can have severe droughts.
    • Lots of annual plants, no sort of evergreen really in general.
    • Not very biodiverse.
    • Most damaged of any temperate zone biome because of agricultural value.
    • Productivity: due to farming in North America about 35-40% of organic matter has been removed over last 3-4 decades.
    • In general the drier grasslands cannot handle intensive farming. Leading to desertification - which creates a nucleus that spreads.
  62. Salinization
    When drier areas are irrigated, water evaporates and draws salts up from the soil which create baked white areas on which nothing can grow.
  63. Chaparral Habitats
    • Moderate Temperatures Year-round.
    • Also known as Mediterranean climates
    • Areas are drier than grasslands.
    • Fire is common.
    • Can be reasonably biodiverse, but have low biomass.
  64. Rain Shadow
    Rising air from the mountains condenses and falls on one side of the mountain and the other side of the mountain remains dry.
  65. Deserts
    • A lot of deserts wind up being about 23-30deg latitude.
    • Low biodiversity usually.
    • Fragile climate – takes a long time for things to regrow.
    • Lots of off-road vehicle damage.
  66. Savanna: Tropical Grassland
    • More biodiverse than temperate grassland, but lower biomass.
    • African Savanna is dotted with trees, but most savannas are not.
    • Have Megafauna, which are heard of large animals.
  67. Megafauna
    Huge herds of large animals leads to the evolution of large predators.
  68. Tropical Dry Forest
    • Another seasonal habitat.
    • Found around the equator sometimes, and definitely in the tropical areas.
    • Made up of deciduous trees that drop leaves during the dry season.
    • Also subject to desertification.
  69. Tropical Rain Forests
    • Very high biodiversity.
    • Extremely poor soil - a lot of the nutrients found in the first couple inches of soil.
    • Largest carbon sink on the planet.
  70. Vertical Zonation
    As you go up in elevation you get different biomes.
  71. Lotic Ecosystems
    Rivers and Streams
  72. Orders of Streams
    • 1st Order - Headwater (little streams).
    • The higher the number, the bigger the stream.
  73. Meandering Rivers vs Straight Rivers
    • Meanders slow down the water, slows flooding, and doesn't allow water rise as high.
    • On srtaight rivers the water gets higher and faster when flooding. (Dikes are built to try and prevent the flooding.)
  74. Lentic Habitats
    Lake Bodies
  75. Oligotrophic
    Nutrient Poor
  76. Eutrophic
    Nutrient Rich
  77. Watershed
    • First order stream and all the higher order streams and all the areas drained into those streams.
    • Further down water shed, more eutrophic lakes and the more pollution.
  78. Mississippi River
    • Very nutrient high from draining areas like agricultural lands.
    • Too much nutrients create an algal bloom.
  79. Algal Bloom
    • Too much algae in the water creates an algal bloom.
    • When algae dies, the bacteria that decomposes it uses up all the oxygen which depletes oxygen out of the water creating a Dead Zone.
  80. Dead Zones
    Zones without oxygen and anything needing oxygen.
  81. Ecosystem Services of swamps and marshes
    • High primary and secondary production.
    • Microbes cleanse water (remove methane and such).
    • Flood control.
  82. Estuaries
    • Biome where rivers feed into the sea.
    • Lots of change in salinity levels.
    • Pretty high nutrient loads, which means they are very productive.
    • Not real diverse because organisms have problems handling the high salinity changes.
    • Can be subject to a lot of development.
  83. Salt Marshes
    • Marshy areas along coastlines.
    • Tend to not be very biodiverse or have high biomass.
  84. Mangroves
    • Generally tropical and subtropical.
    • Go about as north as Florida.
    • Very still waters.
    • Very buggy.
    • Not really biodiverse, but very productive.
    • In danger of being removed for development.
    • Encounters a lot of impact from pollution.
  85. Inter-tidal Zones
    • Heavy impacted by development because people like to build houses and hotels.
    • Very stressful environment.
    • Tends not to be rich in species.
    • Can become silted in by development.
  86. Bentic Zone
    Seafloor
  87. Important Bentic Zones
    • Sea-grass beds
    • Kelp Forests
  88. Sea-Grass Beds
    • Damaged by boating.
    • Used as fish nursaries.
    • Highly productive.
  89. Kelp Forests
    • Common along coastlines.
    • Kind of algae that grows up to 40-50ft long.
    • Very productive area.
  90. Photic Zone
    • Very important because light can penetrate them.
    • High biomass and high biodiversity in coral reefs.
    • At risk because of over-fishing and damage from anchors.
    • Reefs are near-shore habitats so encounter a lot of human activity.
    • One of the major problems is siltation.
    • Most corals have mutualistic relationship with algae, when algae is killed by siltation, coral dies too.
  91. Coral Bleaching
    • Occurs when algae are expelled from the bodies of corals (killing the coral).
    • Not sure why this occurs.
  92. Various Threats to Water
    • Nonpoint Source Pollution
    • Invasive Species
    • Overfishing
    • Bycatch
    • Aquaculture
    • Point Source Pollution
    • Coastal Development
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Climate Change
  93. Nonpoint Source Pollution
    • Runoff from land.
    • Untrackable.
  94. Invasive Species
    Release of ship's ballast water, which contains foreign crabs, mussels, worms and fishes.
  95. Overfishing
    • Our technology allows people to make more money by catching more fish.
    • By the time people figure out fisheries are collapsing, it's too late.
  96. Bycatch
    Unintentionally catching things like turtles, dolphins, etc.
  97. Ocean Gyres
    • Areas where currents sweep.
    • Junk in the ocean winds up in the center (slow moving water).
    • 5 of them, the biggest being the North Pacific Gyre.
  98. Nurdles
    • Little pebbles that plastic bottles break down into.
    • Can be found on every coastline in the world.
    • Ingested by anything that can get them in their mouths and cause many deaths.
  99. Two natural reservoirs of CO2 and CH4
    • Organic (Animal Respiration and methanogenic bacteria)
    • Inorganic (Coal, natural gas, volcanoes)
  100. Anthropogenic additions of carbon
    Automobiles and Industry
  101. Normal Carbon Cycle
    Plants > Animals > Dead Animals Release Carbon
  102. Living Carbon Sinks
    Trees
  103. Geological Carbon Sinks
    Soil, Peat, Coal, Natural Gas
  104. Carbonate Rocks
    • Saline environment
    • Laberation can lead to catastrophic global warming.
  105. Issues in the Oceans
    • Warming expands the oceans - increases the level of sea rise.
    • Increased carbonic acid - increases acidy of oceans
  106. Nitrogen
    • Nitrogen is a limiting nutrient of plant growth.
    • Nitrogen makes up 78.1% of the Atmosphere.
  107. Organisms that can use atmospheric Nitrogen
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Free-living bacteria
    • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (on roots of plants - source of most our nitrogen)
    • Actinomycetes bacteria
  108. Nitrogen Cycle Timeframe
    • Atmospheric: Unknown
    • Organic: ~625yrs
  109. How Humans have screwed up the nitrogen cycle (3):
    • Eutrophication (too much N and P which causes algal blooms)
    • Nitrogen oxides (smog)
    • Acidification (acid rain)
  110. Major Reservoirs of Phosphorus: Geological
    • Mineral Deposits
    • Marine Sediments
    • Slowly released through weathering
  111. Major reservoirs of Phosphorus: Organic
    • Plants take up P from soils (Mycorhizzal fungae are a key organism)
    • P is passed on to animals (during grazing)
  112. How humans have screwed up the phosphorus cycle
    • Eutrophication
    • Feedlots
    • "remains in the ocean for millions of years" (as rocks)
  113. Sulfur Cycle
    Driven by autotrophic bacteria (Break down sulfate bonds to obtain energy)
  114. Anthropogenic Changes to the Sulfur Cycle
    • Global level of sulfur increased by ~160%
    • Acid rains: Creation of sulfuric acid in the atmosphere
  115. Water Reservoirs
    • Ice
    • Atmosphere
    • Runoff
    • Lakes & Rivers
    • Ocean
    • Groundwater
    • Aquifers
  116. Basic principles of population growth
    r (growth rate) = b (births) – d (deaths)

    • r > 0, population grows
    • r < 0, population declines
    • r = 0, population stable
  117. Two factors for maximum growth rates:
    • Remove all barriers (there are no limiting factors)
    • Intrinsic rate of increase (exponential growth)
  118. Two types of growth
    • Exponential: No or few limiting factors
    • Logistic: Limiting Factors
  119. Limiting factor
    Something or things that limit further population growth.
  120. Intrinsic rate of increase
    A population is growing at a maximum rate
  121. Carrying capacity
    Maximum population density a species under study can achieve based on limiting factors present at a study site.
  122. Grand Canyon National Park Deer Management
    • Predators removed
    • Herbivores removed
    • Population explosion of deer: (1918: ~40k; 1924: ~100k)
    • The crash: Winter of 1924 (~60k deer die)
    • Modern Management
  123. Density-dependent factors
    Population growth varies inversely with population density
  124. Density-independent factors
    Factors independent of population density control population growth
  125. Demography
    Study of population change over time
  126. Thomas Malthus
    First person to realize that populations cannot grow forever.
  127. Population growth in the United States
    • Fastest-growing developed nation
    • Due primarily to immigration, but also high reproductive rate (fastest growing subgroup are Latinos)
    • Soon to be a “majority minority” country
  128. Demography of Nations
    • Developed Countries: Some have achieved 0 population growth or close to it.
    • Moderately Developed Countries: Increase in population because birth rates stay current while death rates drop.
    • Less Developed Countries: 0 population growth because of high birth and high death rates.
  129. 4 Stages of Population Growth
    • STAGE 1: Preindustrial – High birth and high death rates.
    • STAGE 2: Transitional – High birth rates, but death rates drop.
    • STAGE 3: Industrial – Birth rates come down and eventually reach zero population growth.
    • STAGE 4: Postindustrial – Populations eventually decline.
  130. Microloans
    • Used to allow someone to get into the free market system and begin making money.
    • Usually offered by international banks, given to people in various developing countries.
  131. Overpopulation leads to instability
    • Economic: Low income in overpopulated countries (Civil unrest, warfare, banditry)
    • Refugees: Economic, political, and ecological (Refugees migrate to escape untenable situations)
    • Illegal immigration: To richer countries (Straining the economy of host countries)
  132. Carrying capacity: Limiting factors
    • Space: Overpopulation
    • Food: Food insecurity and famine
    • Climate and Weather: Climate Change
    • Soils/Minerals: Erosion
    • Disease: Avian flu (H5H1), H1N1, and other “emerging diseases”
    • Human Activity: Pollution and other damage to the ecosystem
  133. Degradation of Quality of Life
    • Chronic Hunger
    • Water Shortage: Must be high quality
    • Economic: Collapsing infrastructure and social systems
  134. Four way to eliminate chronic hunger
    • Reduce population growth rate
    • Increase economic development: A better economy allows more people to buy adequate food
    • Increase food supply
    • Better distribution of food supply
  135. World Bank and IMF
    • Loan money to developing nations to develop things that are sometimes not environmentally friendly.
    • Example: Aswan High Damn, Egypt
    • The other problem with the loans is that they will loan massive amounts of money to these countries which doesn't help them to stimulate the economy enough so they become buried in debt.
  136. Why is fertility rate high?
    • Higher mortality of children
    • Children as workers
    • Eldercare
  137. TFR among religions
    • Highest: Catholic
    • Moderate: Protestants and Jews
    • Lowest: No religious affiliation
  138. Why women tend to live in poverty (4)
    • Income inequality
    • No legal rights
    • Poor education
    • Reduced political participation
  139. TFR Policies by Country
    • China: Penalties for >1 child. 1.6 births/woman.
    • India: “aggressive” approach to bringing TFR down
    • Mexico: 32% of population is <15yrs old
    • Nigeria: 5.9 births/woman; 45% of population <15yrs old
    • Europe: Stabilizing or declining
  140. Energy Sources and Issues
    • Nuclear: Few ghg issues; high storage risk
    • Oil: Versatile energy source; many ghg issues
    • Wind and Solar: Major infrastructure and availability issues (As-yet-unrecognized habitat destruction issues)
    • Coal: Important source of energy, but major ghg and pollutant issues
    • Biofuels: Major habitat destruction issues, uses more energy than it replaces, and is subsidized
  141. Why have a policy?
    • Energy needed for economic growth
    • Maintaining supply requires a long-term strategy
    • Managing the downsides is something only government can do
    • Managing the nuclear waste is also something only the government can do
  142. *Four core objectives in policy*
    • Increasing efficiency and conservation
    • Securing future fossil-fuel supplies
    • Develop alternative energy sources
    • Weigh costs and benefits
  143. Economic Externality
    Something created by the industry that you do not pay for but is part of the production
  144. Carbon Sinks (6)
    • Forests
    • Soil
    • Oceans
    • Atmosphere
    • Fossil Fuels (turning from a sink to a source)
    • Carbonate Rocks
  145. Coal Ranked by Quality
    • Sulfur and water content vary
    • Some are better than others
    • Lower sulfur content is better because leads to less acid rain
  146. Types of Mines
    • Subsurface
    • Strip mining
  147. Creation of Power
    • Energetic particles are given off in the decay process
    • These particles carry energy
    • This energy can heat water into steam
    • Steam can be used to drive a turbine
    • Some of the particles given off by radioisotopes may strike nearby radioisotopes, causing them to decay and give off particles
  148. Energetic Particles given off...
    • Alpha Particles (not very energetic)
    • Beta Particles (more energetic)
    • Gamma Particles (the most energetic)
  149. Containment Vessels
    • Contain the reaction
    • Containment vessels must be cooled (this controls the reaction)
    • Uncontained reaction occurs in a coolant failure (leads to a meltdown)
  150. Breeder Reactors
    • U-238 bombarded with neutrons (Creates Pu-239)
    • Pu-239 then used to create energy
    • Safety Issues: Liquid sodium and Nuclear weapons
  151. MOX Reactors
    • Blend U-235, plutonium, oxygen
    • Forms uranium and plutonium oxides
    • This makes mixed-oxide, or MOX fuel
    • Can be created from surplus weapons grade plutonium
    • There is a lot of surplus weapons-grade plutonium
  152. Cost of Nuclear Power
    • More expensive to build than conventional fossil-fuel plants
    • Heavily regulated (Regulatory cost is high)
    • Protection from terrorist attack
    • Results in long cost-to-recovery timeline
    • Subsidies may be needed for development
  153. Accidents: Three Mile Island
    • Faulty valve sticks open (Coolant drains from reactor core)
    • An uncontrolled chain reaction occurs (No coolant to slow it down)
    • Partial meltdown (Minor release of radiation to the environment)
    • Industry claim: A similar accident unlikely using modern plant designs
  154. Accidents: Chornobyl
    • Explosion in the building that housed the containment vessel.
    • Released massive amounts of radiation into the environment.
    • 20-mile radius evacuated, no one has lived there since.
  155. Nuclear Proliferation
    • Nuclear plants can make power and bombs (Relatively easy to hide nuclear weapons programs as a result).
    • Dirty bombs (Missing radioactive material).
    • Selling nuclear “secrets” (How to build a bomb).
  156. Storage of Waste
    • No long-term storage
    • Local political resistance (Storage / Transportation)
    • Timeline (Safe storage for 1 million years)
  157. Leader of Nucular Technology:
    France
  158. 5 Sources of Renewable Energy
    • Solar
    • Hydropower
    • Wind
    • Biomass
    • Geothermal
  159. “Regionalization” of renewable energy
    • Pacific Northwest: Hydropower
    • Plains: Wind power
    • Coastal: Tidal power and wind
    • Geothermal: Highly localized
  160. Solar power's limitations
    • Latitude/climate
    • Cloud cover
    • Seasonality (Winter/Summer; PNW Viable in summer and not in winter)
    • Time of day (Sunrise, sunset)
  161. Wind Energy / Wind Farm Downsides
    • Kill a lot of bats.
    • Habitat Destruction
    • Localized Potential is Best
    • Shore-line will not rely on it.
  162. Water Power / Dams
    • Affects Salmon runs
    • Not very environmentally friendly
    • Screws up flood regime.
    • 2,200 dams used in the US to generate power
  163. Tidal Power
    • Another form of hyrdo power
    • Works as tide comes in and when it goes out
    • Environmental impact unknown
  164. Biofuels
    • Enthanol Industry Subsidized in US
    • Takes more corn to put in, then energy you get out of it
    • Causes rising food prices
  165. Hubbards Peak (& Normal Curve)
  166. Water Use
    ~30% of world’s fresh water used by people (~70% for irrigation, ~20% in industry, ~10% residential)
  167. Water Deficits
    • Deficit is not noticeable (Deficit is made up by aquifer overpumping)
    • Occurs when you do not have enough surface water for the population to drink
    • Problems most serious in these countries and/or areas: China, The Indian subcontinent, The Middle East, North Africa, North America
  168. Need 1000 m3/person/year
    • Enough to satisfy drinking, hygiene and food production.
    • In 18 countries, water supplies are insufficient
    • By 2050, water supply insufficient in ~39 countries (~1.7 billion people will have too little water to fulfill basic needs)
  169. Reducing flooding and damage from flooding
    • Don’t remove or “reclaim” wetlands
    • Don’t remove upland vegetation
    • Don’t remove streamside vegetation
    • Don’t channelize streams
    • Don’t build in floodplains
  170. Aquifer
    Area that is super saturated with water, in which water can be drawn out of it.
  171. Recharge Rates
    • Rate at which aquifers are replenished. Frequently exceeded by our water use. Rates vary quite a bit, as do the amount that water is being removed.
    • We draw about 2/3 of the recharge rate out of local aquifers.
  172. Fossil Aquifers
    Were being recharged in the past, however the weather situation has changed.
  173. Black Hills Aquafers are the...
    • Deadwood
    • Madison
    • Minnekata
    • Minnelusa
    • Inyan Kara
  174. Water Use
    • ~30% of world’s fresh water used by people
    • ~70% for irrigation
    • ~20% in industry
    • ~10% residential
  175. Water Deficits
    • Deficit is not noticeable (made up by aquifer overpumping)
    • Problems most serious in these countries and/or areas: China, The Indian subcontinent, The Middle East, North Africa, North America
  176. 1000 m3/person/year
    • In 18 countries, water supplies are insufficient
    • By 2050, water supply insufficient in ~39 countries
    • ~1.7 billion people will have too little water to fulfill basic needs
  177. Aquifer
    • Area that is super saturated
    • with water, in which water can be drawn out of it.
  178. Recharge Rates
    • Rate at which aquifers are replenished.
    • Frequently exceeded by our water use. Rates vary quite a bit, as do the amount that water is being removed.
    • We draw about 2/3 of the recharge rate out of local aquifers.
  179. Fossil Aquifers
    Were being recharged in the past, however the weather situation has changed.
  180. Black Hills Aquafers
    • Deadwood
    • Madison
    • Minnekata
    • Minnelusa
    • Inyan Kara
  181. Reducing flooding and damage from flooding
    • Don’t remove or “reclaim” wetlands
    • Don’t remove upland vegetation
    • Don’t remove streamside vegetation
    • Don’t channelize streams
    • Don’t build in floodplains
  182. Salinization
    • Occurs where you irrigate arid areas.
    • Brings salt out of the gound, turning it into a salt pan.
    • Vegetation doesn't recover in this area.
  183. Ogalala Aquifer
    • Supplies water to about 20% of the area.
    • Recharge rate extremely low.
    • Most of the recharge has come from ice melt from the last iceage.
    • Conversion of land to corn should increase water use.
  184. Glacial lakes: “Prairie Potholes”
    • This region is the biggest region for the production of waterfowl for the country.
    • Has suffered a reduction of about 50% of ponds and 50% of water fowl populations.
    • The ponds are disappearing because of drought.
  185. Point vs Non-Point Pollution
    • EPA Regulations Point-Source Pollution (Can be followed back to a source.)
    • Most of the pollution in the US and worldwide is from non-point sources (Running across the land, carrying pollutants.)
    • Non-Point is more common.
  186. Five parts of the nitrogen cycle
    • Nitrogen Fixation
    • Nitrification
    • Ammonification
    • Denitrification
    • Assimilation
  187. Percentages or organic matter in the ecosystem.
    • 25% of the biomass in this ecosystem is all below ground.
    • Most is usually found in the soil.
    • When the soil gets removed, you lose a lot of the organic matter.
    • Reducing the nutrient content is also a bad thing.
    • The below ground biomass doesn't include burrowing animals, mostly means microorganisms and roots.
  188. Most Important Nutrients Used by Plants
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfur
    • Carbon
  189. Lichen
    • Soil is made during the process of the weathering of rock.
    • When glaciers recede, they only leave bedrock.
    • The only thing that can colonize this is lichen.
    • Lichen produce carbonic acid which eats the rock away and forms really primitive soil.
    • Only Nitrogen-fixing plants can live in young soil.
  190. Loam
    Mixture of Clay (10-30%), Silt (30-50%) and Sand (25-50%)
  191. 6 Soil Layers
    • O-Horizon
    • A-Horizon
    • E-Horizon
    • B-Horizon
    • C-Horizon
    • Solid Parent Material
  192. O – Horizon
    • Made up of humus (Decomposing matter).
    • Is where most organisms that live in soil are found. These organisms break down the humus.
    • Fairly rich with nutrients.
    • Richest mixture of nutrients are found on the bottom of this horizon.
    • Water tends to pull metals out of this horizon into deeper horizons (known as leaching)
  193. A-Horizon
    • Accumulated organic matter, more leached material at the bottom.
    • Plants sink their roots usually only through the O and A horizon.
  194. E-Horizon
    • If top soils are removed, difficult to grow things here.
    • Some plants can work with it, lot of them cant.
    • Lot of metals present in this horizon.
    • Much more resistant to leaching, but full of leached material.
  195. B-Horizon
    Lots of minerals accumulate here.
  196. Soil types
    • Mollisols: Fertile, dark, soils of temperate grasslands (The richest soil types in the world, They have a deep A Horizon)
    • Oxisols: Soils of tropical and subtropical rain forests (Humus broken down rapidly in O horizon, A horizon is thin)
    • Alfisols: Found in forests of the temperate zones (Moderately well developed O, A, E, and B horizons)
    • Aridisols: Soils of drylands and deserts of the world (Sandy with poor water retention, Known as salic soils)
    • Spodosols: Soils of northern coniferous forests (Acidic O horizon, Leaching is common)
  197. Types of Soil Damage
    • Erosion
    • Mineral Depletion
    • Salinization
    • Desertification
  198. What is biodiversity?
    • Number of Species (species richness)
    • Genetic diversity within a species (# of individuals, # of populations)
    • Ecological diversity (diversity of habitat)
  199. Valuation
    • Ecosystem Services (Pollination, pest control, flood services)
    • Genetics (genetic pool of resources: crops, gmo, source of new crops)
    • Research Potential (research of all kinds needs genetic stock)
    • Teaching potential (natural teaching lab)
    • Utilitarian (Products from the wild)
    • Spiritual/Religious ("piece of mind", recreation)
  200. Background Extinction
    • "Normal" rates derived from fossil record
    • Called "background extinction rate"
  201. Current Rates of Background Extinction
    • 10s to 10s of thousands of times background rates
    • Compared with any of the rates of the five mass extinctions
    • As a result, study of mass extinctions is important
  202. What causes extinctions?
    • Habitat alteration
    • Invasive species
    • Overexploitation
    • Pollution
  203. Causes of Extinctions: Habitat Alteration
    • Habitat loss
    • Habitat conversion
    • Habitat fragmentation
    • Habitat degradation
    • Damns
  204. How to decide what to conserve
    • Funding
    • Endangered habitats
    • Biodiversity hotspots
  205. Frog Declines
    • ~2000/5700 in decline
    • Amphibians as indicators
  206. Reasons for Frog Declines
    • Introduced predaceous fish
    • Other introduced species
    • Disease
    • Climate change
    • Deformities
  207. Peculiarities of honeybees
    • The proboscis reflex
    • Colonies
    • Lifespan
  208. Threats to honeybees
    • Varroa destructor (mites)
    • Nosema ceranae (parasite)
    • Colony collapse disorder
  209. Other pollinators
    • Alfalfa leaf-cutting bee
    • Blue Orchard bee
    • Hornfaced bee
    • Syrphid flies
    • Bluebottle flies
    • Houseflies
  210. Decline in Fish Size
    • Oceans warm and fish move more
    • Increases oxygen demand
    • Fish gill size selected for via natural selection
    • Result: Decline in size and move to cooler waters.
  211. In geological history, a few degrees of change over millions of years, we have large changes in the last ____yrs.
    250
  212. If we continue emitting at the rate today, the temp should rise from _______ by 2090-2099. However, energy use keeps rising from ____/year which means that much more CO2 in the atmosphere.
    • 0.3 to 0.9
    • 5-10%
  213. Methane is about ____x more powerful than CO2 as a ghg.
    20
  214. Greenhouse gasses in atmosphere
    • CO2: Carbon dioxide
    • CH4: Methane
    • N2O: Nitrous oxide
  215. How warming works
    • GHGs absorb infrared radiation
    • Infrared is reradiated to space from Earth
    • Heat is also trapped during reradiation
  216. Where the excess GHG come from
    • Burning fuels containing carbon
    • Natural gas
    • Deforestation
    • Water vapor
  217. Water vapor
    • Added to atmosphere as world warms
    • Positive feedback loop
  218. Problems Predicting Climate Change
    • Other pollutants cool the climate: SOx
    • Other pollutants warm the climate: Soot
    • Heat capacity of water
    • Feedback loops
    • “Uncertainties”
  219. Feedback loops
    • Loss of snow, ice, and glaciers
    • Drought and aridification/desertification
    • Water vapor and warming
  220. Lag time
    Water cools down slowly (and heats up slowly)
  221. About _____ of the worlds pop lives within 100km of the worlds coastlines
    40%
  222. Tipping Points
    • We have observed times in the geological history where climate has veered from one climatic regime into another.
    • These data show that the rapid changes can occur on an order of 10yrs
    • This shows a 10deg F change in 10yrs
    • Rapid and radical
  223. Recent History
    • Warm Period that lasted 500yrs, which coordinated with greenland colonization
    • Little Ice Age – Cooling occurred for a couple hundred years
  224. THC
    • Worldwide current of ocean water flowing all around the globe
    • Cold and warm portions
    • Deep-water THC as well as surface water THC
  225. North Atlantic THC
    • Southern NA has highest salinity in worlds oceans
    • Reason for this is you get dry trade-winds off the sahara that blow across NA increasing salinity in southern NA
    • Current goes along coast of Sam and eastern US and gets warm
    • Highly saline water cools as it gets further north.
    • Interacts with less saline water, and drops to the bottom (more dense). Becomes deepwater cold current.
    • Pushes past iceland, then starts to become steered back to the south.
  226. Arctic
    • Most of the ocean waters cant get to this ocean because it is primarily surrounded by land.Icecap is mostly maintained.
    • In a warming earth the current may not sink, or it will drive up into the arctic ocean.
    • Current would stall in the North atlantic (causing stagnet water)
  227. Why we should care about ocean temps (IPCC Info)
    • Ocean is a reservoir of heat
    • Ocean expansion is due to heating throughout the ocean
    • Sea life at depth also affected
    • Surface and deepwater temps measured
  228. Melting of methyl hydrates
    • Frozen reservoir of methane
    • Stays frozen at high pressures and cold temperatures
    • Temperatures warm, methyl hydrates melt
    • Liberation of methane
  229. Salinity
    • Saltier at equator, less saline towards the poles
    • Speeds ocean currents
    • Warm water may arrive at poles faster
  230. Acidity
    • CO2 + H2O creates carbonic acid
    • pH has dropped by about 0.1 unit (from 8.2 to 8.1)
    • Why this matters: Carbonic Acid breaks down CaCO3 (calcium carbonates)
  231. CaCO3 (calcium carbonates)
    • forms exoskeletons of plankton and corals
    • Phytoplankton are the primary producers of the oceans
    • Decreased primary production means decreased production at all trophic levels
  232. Results of IPCC predictions from assessments 1 – 3
    • CO2 emissions largely increased as predicted in 1st assessment
    • Global temperatures risen similar to predictions
    • Sea level rise and loss of ice cover has proceeded more quickly than predicted

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