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- 19 Century -A
- sociopolitical movement and the aim for a classless and stateless society. The end of wage labor and private property in means of production and real estate. The exact definition of communism varies, and it is often mistakenly, in general political discourse, used interchangeably with socialism; however, Marxist theory contends that socialism is just a transitional stage on the road to communism. Leninists revised this theory by introducing the notion of a vanguard
- party to lead the proletarian revolution and to
- hold all political power after the revolution, 'in the name of the workers' and supposedly with worker participation, in a transitional stage between
- capitalism and socialism.
Historically, social democracy was a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. During the early 20th century, major European social democratic parties began to reject elements of Marxism, Revolutionary socialism and class struggle, taking a moderate position that socialism could be established through political reforms. The distinction between Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism had yet to fully develop at this time. The Frankfurt Declaration of the Socialist International in 1951, attended by many social democratic parties from across the world, committed adherents to oppose Bolshevik communism and Stalinism, and to promote a gradual transformation of capitalism into socialism.Social democracy rejects the Marxian principle of dictatorship of the proletariat and the creation of a socialist state, claiming that gradualist democratic reforms will improve the rights of the working class.
was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany.believed in the supremacy of an Aryan master race and claimed that Germans represent the most pure Aryan nation. They argued that Germany's survival as a modern great nation required it to create a New Order — an empire in Europe that would give the German nation the necessary land mass, resources, and expansion of population needed to be able to economically and militarily compete with other powers
to bring (a foreign country) under the influence of U.S. trade, popular culture, and attitudes.`coca-colonization'to describe the impact of the ways of Westernsocieties on developing countries. The devastatingresults of Western intrusion into the lives oftraditional-living indigenous communities
- was a Georgian-born, Soviet politician and Bolshevik revolutionary, who held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee
- from 1922 until his death in 1953. While formally the office of the General Secretary was elective and was not initially regarded as the top position in the Soviet state, after Vladimir Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin managed to consolidate more and more power in his
- hands, gradually putting down all opposition groups within the party.
25 August 1912 – 29 May 1994) was a German communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic from 1971 until 1989. Serving as Head of State as well from Willi Stoph's relinquishment of the post in 1976. Honecker was ousted by the party in late 1989 and, after the German reunification successfully evaded prosecution for widespread human rights abuses, finally settling down in Chile in 1993, where he died in exile.
Imperialism, as defined by The Dictionary of Human Geography,is "the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination." The imperialism of the last 500 years, as described by the above work, is primarily a western undertaking that employs "expansionist – mercantilism and latterly communist – systems." In the late 19th century, imperialis really took hold in Europe it was all about international presitge and the more colonies that could be acquired by each nation then the more power and status they held. Great Britain was a major part of this Imperialist ideal, also trying to stop other countries such as France and Germany from setting up colonies that could harm British interest.
dolf Hitler was born on 20th April, 1889, in the small Austrian town of Braunau near the German border. Both Hitler's parents had come from poor peasant families.Although much decorated in the war, Hitler only reached the rank of corporal. This was probably due to his eccentric behaviour and the fear that the other soldiers might not obey the man they considered so strange. Hitler was always very Anti- semitic and this lasted until the end of his life. He was also an extreme German nationalist. After WWI hitler returned to Munich and entered into politcs. Created the National Socialist German Worker's Party and called it Nazi for short. HItler would lead germany and be its chancelor and fuher from 1934 till april 30th 1945 with his suicide. During his reign as Chancellor Hitler odered the death of 6 mlion Jews and wrote a book that explained the reason that HIter and Germany were to rule over all these other nations, this would be Social Darwinism. Hitler was ultimately tying to bring Germnay off of its knees after WWI and when that didnt happen after WWII, Hitler couldn't bear the thought of a life in an opressed Germany and so he killed himself.
The Eastern Bloc refers to the former communist states of Eastern and Central Europe, especially the Soviet Union and its satellites in the Warsaw Pact.Authoritarian communist governments were initially installed in a bloc politics process that included extensive political and media controls, along with the Soviet approach to restricting emigration. Events such as the Tito-Stalin split and Berlin Blockade prompted stricter control from Moscow. While the Bloc persisted through revolts including the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the aftermath of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, its command economies experienced inefficiency and stagnation preceding the Bloc's dissolution.Authoritarian communist governments were initially installed in a bloc politics process that included extensive political and media controls, along with the Soviet approach to restricting emigration. Events such as the Tito-Stalin split and Berlin Blockade prompted stricter control from Moscow. While the Bloc persisted through revolts including the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and the aftermath of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, its command economies experienced inefficiency and stagnation preceding the Bloc's dissolution.The Eastern Bloc can also be seen as the forming of the Iron Curtain that divided Germany and the rest of europe.
was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews during World War II went from early 42 to late 44-45, a programme of systematic state-sponsored extermination by Nazi Germany throughout Nazi-occupied territory. Approximately two-thirds of the population of nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust perished.Various legislation to remove the Jews from civil society, predominantly the Nuremberg Laws, was enacted in Nazi Germany years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave labor until they died of exhaustion or disease. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings. The Third Reich required Jews and Romani to be confined in overcrowded ghettos before being transported by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority of them were systematically killed in gas chambers.
The Beer Hall Putsch (also known as the Munich Putsch but, in German, referred to as the Hitlerputsch or the Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch) was a failed attempt at revolution that occurred between the evening of 8 November and the early afternoon of 9 November 1923, when Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler, Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff, and other heads of the Kampfbund unsuccessfully tried to seize power in Munich, Bavaria and Germany. Putsch is the German word for a military coup d'état. Beer halls in the early 20th century existed in most larger southern German cities, where hundreds or even thousands of people were able to gather during the evenings, drink beer and often engage in political or social debate. They were also places where political rallies could be held, a tradition still alive today. One of the largest beer halls in Munich was the "Bürgerbräukeller", where the Beer Hall Putsch was launched.600 SA surrounded the beer hall and a machine gun was set up pointing at the auditorium doors.Hitler fired a shot into the ceiling and jumped on a chair yelling: "The national revolution has broken out! The hall is filled with six hundred men. Nobody is allowed to leave. The Bavarian government and the government at Berlin are deposed. A new government will be formed at once. The barracks of the Reichswehr and those of the police are occupied [this was not in fact the case]. Both have rallied to the swastika. , killing four state police officers and 16 Nazis. This was the origin of the Blutfahne (blood-flag).