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- this term is used to describe the relationship between America and the Soviet Union 1945 to 1980. Neither side ever fought the other - the consequences would be too appalling - but they did ‘fight’ for their beliefs using client states who fought for their beliefs on their behalf e.g. South Vietnam was anticommunist and was supplied by America during the war while North Vietnam was pro-Communist and fought the south (and the Americans) using weapons from
- communist Russia or communist China. In Afghanistan, the Americans supplied the rebel Afghans after the Soviet Union invaded in 1979
- while they never physically involved themselves thus avoiding a direct clash with the Soviet Union. Came within an inch of world war III during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 where the soviets gave Cuba nuclear missiles that could easily kill millions of Americans.
- While in Potsdam, Truman received word that the atomic bomb had been successfully tested. This resulted in Truman’s stiffness with the soviets. Truman demanded free elections throughout eastern Europe, but Stalin resisted. Also lead to the Potsdam Declaration which faced Japan with an ultimatum, unconditional
- surrender or total destruction. The so-called Potsdam Agreement transferred the chief authority in Germany to the American, Russian, British, and French military commanders in their respective zones of occupation and to a four-power Allied Control Council for matters regarding the whole of Germany.
- supply of vital necessities to West Berlin by air transport primarily underU.S. auspices. It was initiated in response to a land and water blockade of thecity that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies
- would be forced to abandon West Berlin. The massive effort to supply the 2 million West Berliners with food and fuel for heating began in June, 1948, and lasted until Sept., 1949, although the Russians lifted the blockade in May of that year. During the around-the-clock airlift some 277,000 flights were made,
- many at 3-min intervals. By spring, 1949, an average of 8,000 tons was being flown in daily. More than 2 million tons of goods—of which coal accounted for about two thirds—were delivered.
- Spencer, a 19th century philosopher, promoted the idea of Social Darwinism. Social Darwinism is an application of the theory of natural selection to social, political, and economic issues. In its simplest form, Social Darwinism follows the mantra of "the strong survive," including human issues. This theory was used to promote the idea that the white European race was superior to others, and therefore, destined to rule over them. At the time that Spencer began to promote Social Darwinism, the technology, economy, and government of the "White European" was
- advanced in comparison to that of other cultures. Looking at this apparent
- advantage, as well as the economic and military structures, some argued that
- natural selection was playing out, and that the race more suited to survival was winning. At its worst, the implications of Social Darwinism were used as scientific justification for the Holocaust.
- 1917. The Russian Revolution is the
- collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist
- autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917. In the second revolution, during October, the Provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik (Communist) government.Civil war erupted between the "Red" (Bolshevik), and "White" (anti-Bolshevik) factions, which was to continue
- for several years, with the Bolsheviks ultimately victorious. In this way the Revolution paved the way for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The Russian Revolution was responsible for the spread of laudible but not plausible Communist ideas.
- the western front was kept at a standstill for four years because of this. Strategies based
- on movement and maneuver were useless. Machine guns and poison gas were very
- successful in trench warfare. Trenches were filled with constant death, which attracted rats, lice, and many other forms of infections. Trench foot was another common occurance which was due to the constant wearing of their boots
- in the wet trenches.
Treaty of Versailles
- was put together at the Paris Peace
- Conference starting in January 1919. The main signatories of the treaty were Britain, the USA (President Woodrow Wilson), France, and Italy. These leaders were known as the 'Big Four' and met to decide the fate of Germany after the First World
- War. Germany wasn't even invited to the peace treaty. The German Government expected the treaty to be based on Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. Clearly agreement was going to be very difficult, as each country felt they knew best. For example: the USA didn't want Italy getting their territory, France wanted an industrial area called the Rhineland, but Great Britain felt it should only be a demilitarized zone. The final treaty was published in June 1919:
- Germany had to take full responsibility for the war.
- Germany had to pay for all the war damage (reparations) - later set at £6.6billion.
- Germany’s army was reduced to 100,000 men.
- Germany could have no airforce or submarines, and was limited to six large ships.
- Germany to loose territory on all sides, & split in two by new nation of Poland.
- Germany to lose all her colonies.
The Great Purge was a series of campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin
- from 1936 to 1938. It involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants, Red Army leadership, and the persecution of unaffiliated persons, characterized by widespread police
- surveillance, widespread suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and executions.
- In Russian historiography the period of the most intense purge, 1937–1938, is called Yezhovshchina, after Nikolai A number of purges were officially
- Yezhov, the head of the Soviet secret police, NKVD.
- explained as an elimination of the possibilities of sabotage and espionage, in view of an expected war with Germany. Most public attention was focused on the purge of the leadership of the Communist Party
- itself, as well as of government bureaucrats and leaders of the armed forces, most being Party members. The campaigns also affected many other categories of the society: intelligentsia, peasants and especially those branded as "too
- rich for a peasant", and professionals. Hundreds of thousands of victims were accused of various political crimes
When the wall fell it ended the Cold
- War. Communism was no more in Eastern Europe, namely in Germany. It was greatly significant to the Berlin people, particularly those in East Berlin, because when the wall went up, it cut off East Berliners' only chance of escape to a better life apart from Communistic
- rule. West Berlin was quickly becoming one of the best European cities once again, while East Berlin had gone downhill drastically: economically, spiritually, and politically. When the wall fell it meant that the people of Berlin could once again be a whole city. West and East combined to make the complete city of Berlin once more. Although East Berlin has still not caught up completely to it's much wealthier and attractive counterpart in the West, the
- West has given greatly to its cause. It is becoming much easier to find jobs and a good home in East Berlin than it ever was , or was close to becoming when Communism ruled there. After the wall fell, many young people, and young families moved back into the city to start a new life, as well as many artsists
- of all kinds. There are still those in the East that wish communism was still there, but they are very much the minority. There is also still tension between the West and East due to how much the West has had to give up to help it's
- other half regain its health. Those in the West are still called Wessies and the Eastern Berliners are still called Ossies.