Biology 331

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    BETULACEAE Betula nigra

    • LVS: Rhombic-ovate (1-3")
    • Acute Base
    • Deeply Serrate

    FLWS: males pendulous catkins w/3 flws in each scale, females short 3 flws in axils

    • Other: Bard dark reddish, ragged
    • Exfoliating in papery flakes
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    SAPINDACEAE Acer platanoides

    • LVS: ~3 (5) lobed, shallow
    • Sharp acuminate tips
    • Milky latex in petiole

    • FLW: Infl-erect corymbs w/many flws
    • yellow, perfect, small, appear b/f lvs

    Fruit: Schizocarp spreading at ~120o

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    SAPINDACEAE Acer campestre

    • LVS: 3-5 lobes (with middle lobe also 3-lobed)
    • 2-4" long and wide
    • Entire
    • Milky latex

    FLW: Infl-corymb w/several flowers, Green

    Fruit: Schizocarp (double samara) >180o
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    SAPINDACEAE Aesculus pavia

    • LVS: Palmately compound w/5 leaflets
    • Leaflets short stalked
    • Long petioles ~ red colored
    • Lflts obovate, serrate 3-6"long

    • FLW: Infl--terminal upright panicles, 4-8" tall
    • Pink to deep red ~ red stems
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    PINACEAE Tsuga mertensiana

    • LVS: needles spirally arranged (looks like bottle brush)
    • "star" at branch end

    Cones: Large (2-3" long)
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    CELASTRACEAE Euonymus alatus

    LVS: Opp or sub-opp, simple, obovate, finely serrate

    FLW: Infl--cyme w/~3 fls in leaf axil, yellowish green

    Fruit: seeds covered by reddish aril, capsles red, split open to reveal 2 orange fruits
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    BERBERIDACEAE Berberis darwinii

    • LVS: oval 1in dark green, leathery,
    • "spiny" serrate margin
    • apex 3 pronged similar to Ilex cornuta

    Flw: showy--orange-yellow, sometimes reddish
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    HAMAMELIDACEAE Parrotia persica

    • Lvs: wavy-edged
    • coursely serrate (upper 1/2 of leaf)
    • widely spaced lvs
    • base assymetric

    • other: exfoliating barl considered decorative
    • trunk forks into many branches near ground
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    CAPRIFOLIACEAE Lonicera ciliosa

    • lvs:opp, simple, elliptic to ovate
    • entire margin with hairs
    • lvs at end of twig fused to form 1 leaf surrounding the infl

    flw: terminal clusters of orange-red tubular shaped flws

    other: vine
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    STYRACACEAE Halesia carolina

    • lvs: Shallow toothed to entire
    • Ovate to elliptic
    • 2-5” long

    • flw: pendulous flws in small groups
    • perfect, white

    fruit: dry winged 1-seeded fruit
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    SALICACEA Azara lanceolata

    • LVS: large lvs lanceolate
    • pairs of large and small lvs

    FLW: showy rich yellow flws

    Fruit: mauve, lilac or lavender colored berries
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    CUPRESSACEAE Metasequoia glyptostroboides

    • LVS: branchlets opp
    • linear, ~3/4-1" long
    • soft light green

    • Cones: Male cones in pairs on pendulous tassles
    • female cones globose w/ long stalk

    Other: trunk w/"armpits" on older trees
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    CUPRESSACEAE Chamaecyparis obtusa

    • LVS: scales closely appressed of 2 sizes
    • lateral pair much larger
    • blunt at apex
    • white "Y" markings below

    other: branchlets are rounded at the end instead of coming to a point as in Thuja or Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
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    ERICACEA Arbutus menziesii

    • LVS: elliptic, 6" long 3" wide
    • young: serrate
    • old: entire

    • flws: upright panicles <4" long
    • corolla white
    • urn shaped

    other: peeling bark
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    ULMACEAE Zelkova serrata

    • LVS: alt, simple, oblong-ovate
    • 2-5" long, 3/4-2" wide
    • lvs coursely serrate
    • 8-14 vein pairs--pinnate
    • acuminate tip
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    CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus

    • LVS: needle-like, whorled and spreading or scale-like
    • often both leaf types on same plant

    • cones: dioecious, males small, female cone scales fuse to become round an berry like (covered w/wax)
    • cones are used to flavor gin and smell like gin when crushed
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    CORNACEAE Cornus florida

    • LVS: oval to ovate
    • 3-6" long, abruptly acuminate tip
    • base broadly cuneate
    • 6-7 vein pairs, arcuate

    • FLS: 4 bracts, whit, obovate, 2" long, often indented at tips
    • bracts greenish yellow

    other: usually somewhat gnarled
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    STAPHYLEACEAE Staphylea pinnata

    • Lvs: opp, pinnately compound 5-7 leaflets
    • serrate margins & acuminate tips

    • fls: infl--drooping panicles, 2-5" long
    • perfect, 5-merous
    • 2-3 styles
    • petals form tube but are separate, not fused
    • white with greenish bases

    Fruit: inflated capsules, 2-3 lobed
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    PINACEA Abies grandis

    • lvs: flat needles, shiny
    • 2 ranked (not curving upward like A. lasiocarpa)

    • other: cruciform buds
    • gray bark
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    • Lvs: lanceolate to ovate and up to 8" long
    • short petioles

    fls: dioecious, upright, catkin like heads

    • fruit: capsules
    • seeds have silky hairs
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    CORNACEAE Cornus sericea

    • LVS: elliptic to ovate,
    • 5-7 vein pairs
    • arcuate veins

    flw: terminal cyme, 4-merous, no bracts, white petals

    fruit: white drupe

    other: branchlets dark red
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    SALICACEAE Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa

    • lvs: alt, simple, broadly ovate
    • paler below
    • round petioles

    fruit: pubescent capsule

    • other: tree "Q-tip" shaped
    • lvs have reddish resinous buds with a strong cinnamon scent, underside may have orange blotches
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    TAXACEAE Taxus

    • lvs: linear and flat
    • decurrent (leaf base extends down the stem)
    • 2 ranked

    cones: female flsw are small and green near shoot tips with a singe seed w/fleshy red aril.

    other: twigs stay green for 2+ years
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    PINACEAE Larix

    Lvs: needle-like, deciduous, 1-2" long in dense shoots (koosh ball like)

    cones: new cones often red or green

    other: leaves are soft
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    PINACEAE Pseudolarix amabilis

    • lvs: linear, 1-2" long, wide and flattened (Much wider than larix)
    • Bright green
    • spirally arranged and scattered on the long shoots
    • fascicled on the lateral spurs ~ along one plane
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    BERBERIDACEA Nandina domestica

    • LVS: tri-pinnately compound
    • leaflets sessile

    • flws: infl-divided upright panicles up to 1ft long
    • anthers huge, yellow
    • 3-merouse white

    fruit: globulose bright red or white berry
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    OLEACEAE Osmanthus delavayi

    • lvs: Opp, ovate to elliptic-ovate
    • sharply serrulate

    flw: fragrant, white petals, trumpet shaped
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    SALICACEAE Azara microphylla

    • lvs: obovate or round
    • lvs of 2 dif sizes paired at nodes

    • fls: stalked clusters in leaf axils
    • tiny non-showy yellow flws
    • vanilla or choc scented

    other: slender twigs
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    POACEAE Phyllostachys nigra

    Lvs: lanceolate

    • Other: nodes w/2 rings, upper ring more prominent, nodes edged with white below
    • Stems green at first then speckled, then black to 25ft
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    lvs: opp, decussate, sometimes scale-like

    • fls: infl--upright dense spike-like heads in leaf axils
    • white, purple

    fruit: capsules w/2 cells

    • other: shrub or tree, often small
    • branches w/conspicuous leaf scars
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    LARDIZABALACEAE Akebia quinata

    • LVS: alt, palmately compound (5-leaflets)
    • leaflets elliptical to ovate

    fls: chocolate-purple colored

    fruit: sausage like pods, flattened, purple, 2.5-4" long

    • other: twining woody vine or ground cover
    • fls fragrant
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    • Fls: corolla tubular to bell-shaped
    • 5 lobed, lobes often unequal but not 2-lipped

    fruit: 2 valved capsule

    other: arching branches
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    MYRICACEAE Morella californica

    • Lvs: extend from all sides of branch
    • lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate

    • fls: infl-- rounded clusters
    • red when young

    • fruit: winged nutlets in brown cone-like spikes
    • thinly coated with wax
    • clustered below leaves
    • LVS: opp, simple, entire to serrate, no stipules
    • FLS: infl- axillary or terminal clusters
    • fls often paired--corolla fused at base & tubular
    • mostly bilateral
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    ROSACEAE Amelanchier

    • LVS: finely serrate
    • red in fall
    • small deciduous stipules

    • fls: white, 5 sepals fused at base with small teeth
    • 5 narrow petals

    fruit: small black or red pome
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    LVS: opp, ovate to elliptic, often acuminate apex, entire margin

    • FLS: In pairs or whorls or umbel like
    • bilateral
    • often scented
    • 5 petals fused at base to form a tubular corolla
    • 5 stamens with 1 style
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    CAPRIFOLIACEAE Lonicera involucrata

    LVS: opp

    • FLS: yellow or tinged w/red
    • pubescent
    • in pairs cupped by large greenish purplish bract

    fruit: 2 shiny black berries w/2 pairs of maroon-purple bracts
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    ASPARAGACEAE Cordyline australis

    • LVS: sword shaped
    • very long (2-3ft), narrow
    • lvs in tufts on ends of trunk

    fls: small fls on large upright branching inflImage Upload 38
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    NOTHOFAGACEAE Nothofagus

    • LVS: small with a short petiole
    • usually has parallel veins and is either shallowly lobed or toothed
    • usually 2 ranked
    • undulating margins in evergreen variety

    Fls: male solitary or in 3-5 cymes, female short stalked in clusters of 3
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    CERCIDIPHYLLACEAE Cercidiphyllum japonicum

    • lvs: opp on delicat-looking shoots
    • cordate or rounded
    • palmately veined
    • crenate-serrate margin

    fls: dioecious, on spurs b/f lvs

    other: tree to 30ft, slender, divided at base into several upright branches
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    ROSACEAE Chaenomeles

    • lvs: alt/clustered and simple
    • serrate margin
    • large stipules

    fls: perfect, radial, pink red or orange, 5 waxy petals

    other: often has spines, fls b/f lvs
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    PINACEAE Cedrus atlantica

    • lvs: rigid needles
    • needles shorter and thicker than C. deodora
    • densely fascicled on spurs

    other: gray bark
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    ROSACEAE Cotoneaster dammeri

    • lvs: alt, simple, entire, elliptic to oblong
    • mucronate tips
    • short petioles

    • fls: solitary or corymb or 3 fls
    • 5 sepals, 5 rounded petals, white
    • purple stamens

    fruit: fleshy red pome w/persistent calyx

    other: trailing evergreen groundcover
  44. ROSACEAE Cotoneaster
    • lvs: sessile or short petioled
    • usually entire margin, often with prominent veins
    • often pubescent

    fls: perfect, radial, and white pink or red

    fruit: pomes, red or black, persistent calyx
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    ROSACEAE Photinia

    • Lvs: lanceolate with a short petiole
    • margin usually serrate
    • bright red new foliage

    fls: wide corymbs or short panicles w/ white fls

    fruit: red pome
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    ROSACEA Crataegus monogyna

    • lvs: ovate to diamond shaped
    • pinnately lobed w/3-7 lobes, w/veins extending to the points of lobes as well as sinuses
    • sinuses go most of the way to the midvein

    fruit: pome w; 1 hard-shelled seed, red

    other: branchlets ~spiny
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    BUXACEAE Sarcococca

    • lvs: usually alt and simple
    • narrowly lanceolate w/an acuminate apex
    • margin entire
    • glossy and leathery

    • fls: monoecious, short racemes in leaf axils
    • small, white, very fragrant
    • no petals

    fruit: drupe-like berry, fleshy

    other: evergreen shrubs to 3ft
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    ARAUCARIACEAE Araucaria araucana

    lvs: spirally arranged, triangular, stiff, closely overlapping, spiny pointed

    • other: branches symmetrically whorled
    • young tree covered by leaves
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    PINACEAE Pinus coulteri

    lvs: 3 per fascicle, very long (12")

    cones: very large (14") and very spiny

    other: deeply fissured bark
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    CUPRESSACEAE Sequoiadendron giganteum

    lvs: scale-like, bluish green, spiral in 3 longitudinal rows

    • cones: female cones 2-3" long
    • ovoid w/peltate (shield shaped) wrinkled cone scales

    • other: huge tree to 325ft
    • spongy, fibrous, red bark
    • trunk buttressed at base
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    PINACEAE Abies lasiocarpa

    • LVS: flat needles, radially spreading, turned up on twig (like a hairbrush)
    • tightly spaced on twig

    cones: purple, 2-4" long, deciduous, upright
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    CUPRESSACEAE Sequoia sempervirens

    • Lvs: 2 ranked (flat plane)
    • shorter at base and tip of branchlet

    cones: ovoid, ~1" long, 15-20 wrikled scales spirally arranged

    other: sheds branchlets not leaves
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    CUPRESSACEAE Cupressus sempervirens

    Lvs: Scale-like, ~0.1-0.4" long

    cones: woody, oblong, grayish brown, 4-6 paired flattened scales

    other: columnar shaped when young
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    CUPRESSACEAE Calocedrus decurrens

    • lvs: scale like, whorled set of 4 lvs
    • lvs longer than wide, little to no white underneath
    • laterals almost covering facials

    cones: oblong (ducks bill when closed)

    other: branchlets are horizontal and vertical-"fluffy" appearance
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    SCIADOPITYACEAE Sciadopitys verticillata

    • Lvs: Linar, 3-5" long
    • revolute margins
    • whorled in 10+
    • lvs thick and grooved (looks like 2 fused needles)
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    ARALIACEAE Hedera hibernica

    • Lvs: young 3-5 lobed
    • adult lvs ovate, entire
    • long petioles
    • prominent veins

    • fls: infl--umbellate raceme
    • only adult plant flowers after 15-20 yrs in the fall

    other: creeps on ground or climbs trees
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    MAGNOLIACEAE Magnolia x soulangeana

    • lvs: entire, large stipules, obuvate
    • lower: pubescent
    • 6" long 3" wide
    • apes narrow, pointed

    • fls: large, solitary and terminal
    • appear b/f lvs
    • purplish on outside to white inside
    • sepals half as long as petals
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    ROSACEAE Kerria japonica

    • lvs: ovate to narrowly ovate
    • doubly serrate

    • fls: orange-yellow
    • petals: 5 to numerous

    other: green twigs
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    ROSACEAE Rubus spectabilis

    • Lvs: ternately compound
    • terminal leaflet stalked and largest
    • doubly serrate

    fls: solitary, pink or purplish red
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    ROSACEA Malus

    lvs: soft, often pubescent, serrate

    • fls:pink to red to white (if white then some pink on bud, often more color on outside of petal)
    • Yellow pollen

    fruit: apple shaped pome with persistant sepals
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    PINACEAE Pinus sylvestris

    • Lvs: fascicles, 2 per
    • short and twisted

    • cones: woody scales spirally arrangeds, scale tip flat to pyramiday
    • Scale has small prickle

    • other: tree bark orange-red
    • irregular peeling
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    PINACEAE Pinus strobus

    • lvs: needles in 5 per fascicle
    • 2-5.5" long
    • soft and slender
    • serrulate

    • cones: female narrow cylindrical 4-8" long
    • scales thin, rounded and flat
    • yellow-brown, no prickle, but resinous
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    MYRTACEAE Eucalyptus

    • lvs: waxy surface, often gray or blue in appearance
    • aromatic oils
    • evergreen

    other: often peeling or exfoliating bark (shrub-tree_
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    ERICACEAE Leucothoe fontanesiana

    • lvs: alt, simple, elliptic, serrate to dentate
    • stem has a "zigzag" pattern (slightly changes direction at each node)

    • fls: spikes in leaf axils
    • urn shaped with toothed lobes
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    ERICACEA Vaccinium ovatum

    • lvs: ovate (0.5-1" long) ~2 ranked on horizontal branchlets
    • serrulate

    • fls: infl-short racemes
    • urn shaped fls w/5 lobes
    • white or pink

    fruit: black round edible berry

    other: reddish branchlets
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    ROSACEAE Prunus serrulata "Kwanzan"

    • lvs: apex long acuminate
    • 5-6 inches
    • no hair
    • coursely serrate or doubly serrate
    • pair of glands near top of petiole -- large and noticable

    • fls: usually double corymbs
    • pink, fls double, appear b/f lvs
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    CAPRIFOLIACEAE Lonicera nitida

    lvs: small (1/4-5/8") ovate to round, margin entire, glossy dark green

    fls: paired, axillary, petals form tube, 5 parted, white, fragrant, 1/4-1/2" long
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    SAPINDACEAE Aesculus hippocastanum

    lvs: opp, palmately compound, very large, long petioles, leaflets sessile, obovate, serrate

    fls: terminal upright panicles, white fls with yellow spots (yellow changes to pink after pollination)

    fruit: 3 valved spiny capsule with shiny seed inside
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    • lvs: usually obique (assymetric) base, usually cordate
    • usually toothed or serrate

    fls: umbel-like clusters attached to a thin, narrow bract
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    ADOXACEAE Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum

    • lvs: coarsly serrate
    • veins 8-12 nearly straight to margins, obvious
    • densely pubescent

    • fls: opp pairs along branches
    • white, inner fls small, fertile, marginal flowers are large and sterile
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    ADOXACEAE Sambucus

    lvs: opp, pinnately compound, ovate to elliptic lvs

    • fls: dense flat topped umbels, panicles or racemes
    • white to ivory fls

    fruit: red, black or white fruit
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    BETULACEAE Alnus rubra

    lvs: broadly elliptic, serrate margins, margin rolled under (revolute) at base of leaf
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    BETULACEAE Betula papyrifera

    lvs: serrate, ovate (much larger than B. pendula)

    • fls: males pendulous catkins w/3 fls in each scale
    • females short, 3 fls in axils, no perianth

    other: bark will peel in horizontal strips
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    BETULACEAE Betula pendula

    • lvs: very ovate-rhombic and narrows greatly to acuminate apex
    • base~cuneate
    • doubly serrate

    • fls: male pendulous catkin w/3 fls in each scale axil
    • female short, 3 fls in axils, no perianth

    other: bark grayish with larg dark triangles esp toward base
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    ROSACEAE Prunus cerasifera var atropurpurea

    • lvs: serrate, elliptic (1-2"long)
    • no extrafloral nectaries

    fls: solitary, white/ pale pink
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    ROSACEAE Cotoneaster coariaceus

    • lvs: broad-elliptic, mucronate at apex
    • upper: dull green
    • lower: whitish, fuzzy
    • 6-9 prominent vein pairs

    fls: corymbs, 2-3" wide, hairy, white

    other: largest lvs within genus
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    SAPINDACEAE Acer saccarum

    lvs: opp, palmately lobed w/5 deep lobes w/ acuminate tips and few narrow pointed teeth on margin

    • fls: drooping clusters on hairy stalks
    • small, yellow-green, bell-shaped with 5 lobes and 2 styles

    fruit: double samara, (looks like a horseshoe "U")
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    GINKGOACEAE Ginkgo biloba

    • lvs: alternate, fan shaped w/parallel veins
    • incised (bifid lobes)

    • cones: male catkin like
    • female small, stalked seed with fleshy aril (looks like silver plum), smelly pulp
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    CUPRESSACEAE Thuja plicata

    • lvs: "butterfly" stomata on back
    • yellowish green color

    cone: wooden rose

    other: bark reddish brown and stringy
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    CUPRESSACEAE Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

    lvs: White "X or Y" mark on underside

    cones: "soccer ball", male cones red
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    AQUIFOLIACEA Ilex crenata

    • lvs: alt, margin serrulate (crenate) on upper blade
    • small, mostly flat
    • lower: dotted with glands

    fls: 4 parted, females solitary, males in 3-7 cyme
Card Set
Biology 331
Land Plant Identification
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