A case in which the plaintiff has produced sufficient evidence of his or her conlcusion that the case can go to a jury; a case in which the evidence compels the plaintiffs conclusion if the defendant produces no evidence to disprove it.
prima facie Case
Job-hiring policies that give special consideration to memebers of protected classes in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination
Identifiable characteristics reasonably necessary to the normal operation of a particular business. These characteristics can include gender, national origin, and religion, but not race.
bone fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
A defense to allegations of employment discrimination in which the employer demonstrates that an employment practice that discriminates against members of a protected class is related to job performance.
A termination of employment brought about by making an employee's working conditions so intolerable that the employee reasonably feels compelled to leave.
A form of employment discrimination that results from certain employer practices or procedures that, although not discriminatory on their face, have a discriminatory effect.
A form of employment discrimination that results when an employer intentionally discriminates against employees who are members of protected classes.
Disparate Treatment Discrimination
Treating employee or job applicants unequally on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, gender, age, or disability; prohibited by federal statutes.
A class of persons with identifiable characteristics who historically have been victimized by discriminatory treatment for certain purposes. Depending on the context, these characteristics include age, color, gender, national origin, race, and religion.
In regard to employment relationships, a system in which those who have worked longest for the company are first in line for promotions, salary increases, and other benefits; they are also the last to be laid off if the workforce must be reduced.
In the employment context, the granting of job promotions or other benefits in return for sexual favors or language or conduct that is so sexually offensive that it creates a hostile working environment.
A significant change in employment status, such as firing or failing to promote an employee, reassigning the employee to a position with significantly different responsibilities, or effecting a significant change in employment benefits.