Vaccines

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Author:
2getAs
ID:
83531
Filename:
Vaccines
Updated:
2011-05-03 15:37:40
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Vaccines Veterinary Pharmacology
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Veterinary Pharmacology
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  1. Vaccine
    A product that produces immunity therefore protecting the body from the disease
  2. What was the first virus that was officially "wiped off the face of the planet" in human history?
    smallpox
  3. What was the second virus in history to have been eradicated by humans?
    rinderpest, "cattle plague"
  4. The most recently approved preventive vaccine by FDA was
    H1N1 (swine) influenza virus vaccine
  5. Criteria for successful companion animal vaccines
    the health and welfare of the individual animal are primary concerns
  6. Criteria for successful livestock vaccines
    improving overall production and the cost-benefit resulting from vaccination
  7. Criteria for successful vaccines for zoonotic or food-borne infections
    - reducing or eliminating the risk for the consumer (human)

    - in some cases improving the productivity of the animal
  8. Criteria for successful wildlife vaccines
    - reducing the risk of human infection in contact with wildlife

    - welfare concerns of wildlife are of increasing importance
  9. Veterinary vs Human vaccines

    Comparison and Contrast
    - Human has higher potential returns, investment in R&D, medium to high complexity, highly stringent regulatory and preclinical requirement, longer time to market launch

    -veterinary has lower potential returns, less investment in R&D, high complexity, less stringent regulatory and preclinical requirement, shorter time to market launge and can research any time on target species
  10. Categories of Vaccines
    - preventive vaccines (traditional vaccine)

    - therapeutic vaccines

    - other types of vaccines
  11. Preventive vaccines
    - most vaccines fall into this category

    - preventing diseases or symptoms

    - most are against infectious diseases
  12. Therapeutic vaccines
    - relatively new type of vaccines

    - used for treating patients with diseased conditions, such as cancer, allergy and infectious diseases
  13. other types of vaccines
    - for production

    - for fertilization control
  14. Humoral response
    produces antibody by B-cells
  15. Cellular response produces
    cytotoxic T cells (kill infective cell)
  16. Requirements for an effective vaccine
    • - must be safe
    • - produce protective immunity
    • - cost-effective
    • - long-lasting
    • - easy to be distributed
    • - easy to be administrated
  17. Types of vaccines currently available in the market
    • - live attenuated vaccines
    • - killed vaccines
    • - subunit vaccines
    • - recombinant vaccines
    • - genetic (DNA) vaccine
    • - vectored vaccines
  18. New types of vaccines under research and development
    • - synthetic peptide or epitope vaccines
    • - edible vaccines
  19. Characteristics of live attenuated vaccines
    • - capable of replicating
    • - do not cause disease
    • - induce strong immune responses (T and B cells)
    • - long duration (single dose)
  20. Safety concerns of live attenuated vaccines
    • - reversion to wild type
    • - cause disease in immunodefficient individuals
    • - potential recombination with wt pathogens
    • - hypersensitivity reaction
  21. Methods to make attenuation
    • - serial passages in vitro or in vivo (traditional way)
    • - host range mutants
    • - isolation of naturally attenuated pathogens
    • - isolation of conditional or TM sensitive mutants
    • - genetic modification (main method now)
  22. Characteristics of Killed vaccines
    • - not capable of replicating
    • - do not cause disease
    • - induce relatively weak immune responses, esp. T cell response
    • - shorter duration (multiple doses)
    • - adjuvant is added
  23. Safety concerns of Killed vaccines
    • - vaccine not completely killed
    • - contamination
    • - hypersensitivity
  24. Methods to make killed vaccines
    • - heat inactivate the pathogens
    • - chemical treatments, such as formaldehyde

    Objective: to inactivate the pathogens but maintain antigenecity
  25. Adjuvant
    add to vaccine to enhance immune response
  26. Characteristics of Subunit vaccines
    • - components of pathogen included
    • - do not cause disease
    • - induce weak immune responses
    • - shorter duration (multiple doses)
    • - conjugated or adjuvanted to achieve efficacy
  27. Conjugate
    to make more antigenic (protein)
  28. Safety concerns with subunit vaccines
    - hypersensitivity
  29. Method for making subunit vaccines
    (1) Grow the pathogen --> (2) inactivate and lyse the pathogen --> (3) isolate and purify the components --> (4)conjugated with carriers and adjuvanted--> (5) subunit vaccines
  30. Characteristics of Recombinant Vaccines
    • - single component of pathogen included
    • - do not cause disease
    • - using recombinant technologies
    • - induce weak immune responses
    • - shorter duration (multiple doses)
    • - adjuvanted to achieve efficacy
  31. Safety concerns with recombinant vaccines
    BEST SAFETY PROFILE
  32. Method of making recombinant vaccines
    (1) cloning of the antigen --> (2) expression of the antigen --> (3) isolation and purification of the antigen --> (4) formulation --> (5) recombinat vaccine
  33. Characteristics of Genetic (DNA) vaccines
    • - easy to be produced
    • - cost-effective
    • - induces humoral and cellular immunity
    • - combination of multiple antigens
    • - low delivery efficiency/efficacy?
  34. Safety concerns of genetic (DNA) vaccines
    - potential integration
  35. Method of genetic (DNA) vaccines
    (1) virus --> (2) gene--> (3) plasmid --> (4) vaccination
  36. Characteristics of Vectored vaccines
    (attenuated or non-pathogenic viruses or bacteria as vaccine carriers)

    • - capable of replicating
    • - do not cause disease
    • - induce stronger immune responses
    • - longer duration
  37. Safety concerns of vectored vaccines
    • - reversion
    • - recombination
  38. Characteristics of Synthetic Peptide or Epitope vaccines
    • - combination of multiple peptides
    • - cost-effective
    • - good safety profile
    • - efficacy
  39. epitope
    small regions (fragments of proteins) where antibody binds
  40. Characteristics of edible vaccines
    • - easy to be produced
    • - no injection, no needle
    • - easy to be stored
    • - no training for administration
    • - even taste good
    • - cost-effective
    • - good safety profile
    • - efficacy?
  41. DIVA vaccines
    - differentiating infected from vaccinated animals

    • - especially for disease-free countries
    • - eradication program
  42. Other types of vaccines
    • - cancer: anticancer vaccines against canine malignant melanoma
    • - immunocontraception vaccines (anti-GnRH vaccine
    • - immunoneutering vaccines: vaccines against gamete antigens (wildlife control)
    • -vaccines to increase fertility: anti-androstenedione vaccine (sheep)
  43. Mechanism of action in vaccines to increase fertility
    • (1) androstenedione
    • (2) estrogen
    • (3) negative feedback effect on FSH/LH
    • (4) decreased fertility

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