Biology 1108 FINAL

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Biology 1108 FINAL
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Biology 1108 Final exam study guide
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  1. Chapter 52

    Define Ecology and its main areas
    • The study of the relationship between organisms and their enviornment.
    • 1. Organismal: how an organisms structure, physiology, and behavior meet enviornmental challenges
    • 2. Population
    • 3. Community: examines the interactions among species, or the role of a particular species in maintaning community structure and organization
    • 4. Ecosystem: focuses on energy flow and nutrient cycling between organisms and their enviornment
    • 5. Landscape: Deals with the array of ecosystems and their arrangement in a geographic region
    • 6. Global: Examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere
  2. Chapter 52

    Discuss abiotic and biotic factors; discuss the 2 main abiotic factors influencing the distribution of organisms on land
  3. Chapter 52

    Discuss charecteristics of the major biomes in our biosphere
    -Stratification in aquatic ecosystems
    -Aquatic biomes
    -Terrestrial biomes
  4. Chapter 52

    Abiotic?
    Nonliving chemical and physical factors
  5. Chapter 52

    Benthic?
    The bottom surface of an aquaticenvironment
  6. Chapter 52

    Biome?
    Any of the world’s major ecosystems
  7. Chapter 52

    Biosphere?
    The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life
  8. Chapter 52

    Biotic?
    Living organisims
  9. Chapter 52

    Chaparral?
    A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
  10. Chapter 52

    Climate?
    The prevailing weather conditions at a locality.
  11. Chapter 52

    Community?
    All the organisms that inhabit a particular area.
  12. Chapter 52

    Desert?
    A terrestrial biome characterized by very low precipitation.
  13. Chapter 52

    Ecology?
    The study of the relationship between organisms and their enviornment
  14. Chapter 52

    Ecosystem?
    A community and its nonliving enviornment
  15. Chapter 52

    Grassland?
  16. Chapter 52

    Lentic?
    Standing water
  17. Chapter 52

    Lotic?
    Running water
  18. Chapter 52

    Pelagic?
  19. Chapter 52

    Photic Zone?
    The narrow top layer of an ocean or lake, where light penetrates suffi- ciently for photosynthesis to occur.
  20. Chapter 52

    Population?
    A localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, produc- ing fertile offspring.
  21. Chapter 52

    Temperate deciduous forest?
  22. Chapter 52

    Taiga?
  23. Chapter 52

    Tropical Forest?
    A terrestrial biome char- acterized by high levels of precipitation and high temperatures year-round.
  24. Chapter 52

    Tundra?
    A biome at the extreme limits of plant growth.
  25. Chapter 53

    Discuss biologocial processes influencing population dispersion and demography
    • Clumped Distribution (most common): results from patchy distribution of resources or suitable living conditions, greater safety from predation, enhanced foraging or mating success.
    • Uniform Dispersal: results from even resource distribution, territoriality
    • Random Dispersal (rare in nature): individuals are spaced in a patternless unpredictable way
  26. Chapter 53

    Compare exponential and logistic population growth
    • Exponential growth: population increases by an exponential amount each generation
    • -Occurs under ideal, unregulated conditions
    • -J-shaped graph
    • -Generally short lived in nature
    • Logistic Growth:
    • -Population initally gwows, but growth later levels out
    • -Limited by enviornmental factors
    • -S-shaped growth curve
  27. Chapter 53

    How do density-dependant and density-independant factors affect population size?
    density dependant factors make the population more stable, density independent factors make the population more unstable
  28. Chapter 53

    Describe charecteristics of opportunistic (r-selected) and equilibrium (k-selected) species
    • K-selected: density dependant, relativly stable
    • R-selected: limited by reproductive rate, density independent, relativly unstable
  29. Chapter 53

    Discuss human population growth
  30. Chapter 53

    Explain:
    Limiting factor/resource
  31. Chapter 53

    Explain:
    Survivorship, age structure
    Survivorship curves describe how long, on average, individuals of a given age can be expected to live.
  32. Chapter 53

    Explain:
    Rate of increase (r):
    The change in population size over a time interval
  33. Chapter 53

    Explain:
    Exponential growth; Logistic growth; Carrying capacity; Equilibrium
    • Exponential growth: Occurs under ideal, unregulated conditions, J-shaped, generally short lived in nature
    • Logistic growth: Population initially grows but later levels out, limited by enviornmental factors, S-shaped growth curve
    • Carrying capacity: The maximum # of individuals a population can support
    • Equilibrium:
  34. Chapter 53

    Explain:
    Density-dependant; Density-independant; Life history; r- and K- selection
    • K-selection: density dependant, relativly stable
    • r-selection: populations are usually well below carrying capacity, are adapted for rapid and prolific reproduction, density independant
  35. Chapter 54

    Discuss the components of species diversity and the factors the factors that influence species diversity

  36. Chapter 54

    Discuss the terms habitat and ecological niche
  37. Chapter 54

    Explain the role of interspecific competition, competitive exclusion, and resource-partitioning in communities
  38. Chapter 54

    Describe the variety of predator and antipredator adaptations
  39. Chapter 54

    Explain the role of keystone predators and keystone species
  40. Chapter 54

    Describe different types of symbiotic relationships with examples
  41. Chapter 54

    Habitat?
  42. Chapter 54

    Niche?
  43. Chapter 54

    Batesian and Mullerian mimicry?
    Mullerian: A mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species.

    Batesian: A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators.
  44. Chapter 54

    Symbiosis?
    An ecological relationship between organisms of two different species that live together in direct and intimate contact.
  45. Chapter 54

    Mutualism?
    A symbiotic re- lationship in which both participants benefit.
  46. Chapter 54

    Commonensalism?
    A sym- biotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither helped nor harmed
  47. Chapter 54

    Parasitism?
    A symbiotic rela- tionship in which one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of another, the host, by living either within or on the host.
  48. Chapter 54

    Aposematic coloration?
    The bright coloration of animals with effec- tive physical or chemical defenses that acts as a warning to predators.
  49. Chapter 54

    Cryptic coloration?
    Camouflage such that a potential prey is difficult to spot against its background.
  50. Chapter 54

    Food web?
    The interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem
  51. Chapter 54

    Producer?
    An organism that produces organic compounds from CO2 by harnessing light energy or by oxidizing inorganic chemicals
  52. Chapter 54

    Consumer?
  53. Chapter 14

    Understand Mendelian principals (Law of Segregation & Law of Independant Assortment)
    Law of Segregation: A organism inherits 2 allels for each charecter. The 2 alleles seperate during gamete production

    Law of independant Assortment: Involves more than 1 charecter, each pair of alleles segragates into gametes independently of each other pair of alleles, true if alleles for each charecter are on seperate chromosomes
  54. Chapter 14

    Interpert and use Punnett squares and Pedigrees in genetic problem solving
    Pedigrees: Squares=Male, Circles=Females
  55. Chapter 14

    Define the role of geneotype and the enviornment in producing the phenotype
    Identical genotypes may have different phenotypes due to enviornment
  56. Chapter 14

    Gene?
    A hereditary unit. Has a specific position on a chromosome
  57. Chapter 14

    Allele?
    A copy of a gene
  58. Chapter 14

    Chromosome?
    A structure carrying genetic material, found in the nu- cleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
  59. Chapter 14

    Geneotype?
    Genetic properties of an organism
  60. Chapter 14

    Heterozygous?
    Having two different alleles for a given gene.
  61. Chapter 14

    Homozygous?
    Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
  62. Chapter 14

    Hybrid?
    Offspring that results from the mating of individuals from two different species.
  63. Chapter 14

    Locus?
    A specific placealong the length of a chromosome where agiven gene is located.
  64. Chapter 14

    Pedigree?
    A diagram of a family tree showing the occurrence of heritable characters in par- ents and offspring over multiple generations.
  65. Chapter 14

    Phenotype?
    • The visible charecters
    • genes
    • enviornment
  66. Chapter 15

    Patterns of inheritance for Autosomal and sex-linked genes
    Most X-linked genes have no homologous loci on the Y chromosome
  67. Chapter 22

    Explain the 3 main premises of Darwinism
  68. Chapter 22

    Explain the process of natural selection as one mechanisim of evolutionary change
    There is random variation in a population, much of the variation is heritable, all species will produce more offspring than the enviornment can support, many offspring do not survive
  69. Chapter 22

    Describe the lines of evidence that support evolution
    Pesticide resistance in insects, the development of antibiotic-resistant microbes, drug resistant dtrains of HIV
  70. Chapter 22

    Descent with modification?
    • Organisms on eart today descended from ancestral species
    • As they spread into different habitats, they accumulated different adaptations
  71. Chapter 22

    Natural Selection?
    A process in which organ- isms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are organisms with other characteristics.
  72. Chapter 22

    Adaptation?
    Inherited charecteristic of an organism that enhances its survival and reproduction in specific enviornments
  73. Chapter 22

    Fitness?
    Based on how many offspring an organism produces
  74. Chapter 22

    Inheritance of acquried charecteristics?
    Lamarcks contribution to natural selection, which was wrong.
  75. Chapter 22

    Biogeography?
    The study of past and present distribution of species
  76. Chapter 22

    Homology?
    Similarity in charecteristics resulting from a shared ancestry
  77. Chapter 22

    Fossil record?
    • Chronological changes in organisms
    • Transitional forms
  78. Chapter 22

    Molecular Biology?
    • The chemical material of genes is common to all organisms
    • Related species share greater DNA/protien similarity
  79. Chapter 23

    Define population genetics
    Tracks the genetic makeup of populations over time
  80. Chapter 23

    Explain the concept of the Hardy-Weinbery equilibrium and its relationship to evolution
    Frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population remain constant from generation to generation
  81. Chapter 23

    Discuss the role of mutation and sexual recombination in evolution
    Mutations get shuffled during sexual recombination
  82. Chapter 23

    Bottleneck Effect?
    Genetic drift that results from a drastic reduction in population size
  83. Chapter 23

    Fixed?
    All the individuals in a population are homozygous for the same allele
  84. Chapter 23

    Founder Effect?
    Genetic drift that occurs when a small number of individuals 'found' a new colony
  85. Chapter 23

    Gene Flow?
    Individuals move between populations bringing in new alleles
  86. Chapter 23

    Gene Pool?
    Consists of all alleles of all individuals making up a population
  87. Chapter 23

    Genetic Variation?
    Differences between members of the same species
  88. Chapter 23

    Heterozygosity?
    Average percent of heterozygous loci in a population
  89. Chapter 23

    Point Mutation?
    A change to just one base in a sequence of DNA
  90. Chapter 23

    Polymorphism?
    2 or more forms of a charecterist are present
  91. Chapter 24

    What is a species?
    A group of individuals that have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring
  92. Chapter 24

    What mechanisims maintain reproductive isolation among species?
    Prezygotic barriers
  93. Chapter 24

    Differentiate between allopatric and sympatric speciation
    Allopatric: requires geographic seperation

    Sympatric: a new species arises within the geographic range of the parent species
  94. Chapter 24

    Prezygotic barriers?
    • Impede mating between species or hinder fertilization of eggs
    • ex: Habitat isolation, behavioral isolation, temporal isolation, mechanical isolation, gametic isolation
  95. Chapter 24

    Postzygotic barriers?
    • Act as a backup, should a hybrid zygote form
    • ex: Reduced hybrid viability, reduced hybrid fertility, hybrid breakdown
  96. Chapter 27

    Discuss general and distinguishing charecteristics or the 3 domains (Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya)
    • Bacteria: cell walls of peptidoglycan
    • Archaea: cell walls of polysaccharides and protiens
    • Eukarya: cell walls or chitin or cellulose
  97. Chapter 27

    Identify some of the important economic and ecological roles of Bacteria and Archaea
    Bacteria are used to make medicine, wash clothes, clean industrial waste, produce foods like cheeses, yogurts, and much more, decomposers, nitrogen fixing
  98. Chapter 28

    Discuss general and distinguishing charecteristics of the kingdom Protista
    Mostly small unicellular eukaryotes, mostly aquatic, hetertrophs and photoautotrophs
  99. Chapter 28

    Discuss differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    Eukaryotic: a type of cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus.

    Prokaryotic: A type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles.
  100. Chapter 29

    Identify distinguishing charecteristics of plants
    Autotrophs, most are terrestrial, multicelluliar eukaryotes, cell walls of cellulose
  101. Chapter 29

    Discuss general charecteristics and adaptations of the 2 main groups of seedless plants: bryophytes (seedless non-vascular plants) and ferns (seedless vascular plants)
    • Bryophytes: Waxy cuticle, the retention of developing embryos within the mothers gametangium, need water to reproduce, lack roots and have no vascular tissue and lingin
    • Ferns: vascular tissue, well developed roots and leaves
  102. Chapter 29

    Alteration of generations?
    A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte.
  103. Chapter 29

    Gametophyte?
    • Haploid
    • Produce haploid gametes by mitosis
  104. Chapter 29

    Sporophyte?
    • Diploid stage
    • Produces haploid spores by meiosis
  105. Chapter 30

    Discuss general charecteriscs and adaptation of the 2 main groups of seed plants: gymnospers and angiosperms
    • POLLEN
    • Gymnosperms:
    • seeds are naked, not enclosed by fruit

    • Angiosperms:
    • Flowers, fruit (seeds encased in ovary tissue)
  106. Chapter 30

    Anthrophyta?
    • Flowering plants
    • 250,000 species
  107. Chapter 30

    Angiosperms?
    Flowering plants
  108. Chapter 30

    Dicots?
    have 2 embryionic seed leaves or cotyledons
  109. Chapter 30

    Double Fertilization?
    The pollen tube discharges 2 sperm into the ovule. One sperm fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with 2 nuclei in the central cell of the femal gametophyte to develope the food-storing endosperm (3n)
  110. Chapter 30

    Endosperm?
    Innermost of the 3 primary layers; nourishes the devoleping embryo
  111. Chapter 30

    Flower?
    Angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction
  112. Chapter 30

    Fruit?
    Typically consists of a mature ovary. Protects seeds, aid in their dispersal. Mature fruits can be fleshy or dry.
  113. Chapter 30

    Gymnosperms?
    "naked seed" plants, including the conifers
  114. Chapter 30

    Monocots?
    Angiosperms that have one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledon
  115. Chapter 30

    Pollination?
    The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules.
  116. Chapter 30

    Seed?
    An adaptation of some terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a protective coat.
  117. Chapter 31

    Identify distinguishing charecteristics of fungi
    Eukaryotes, consist of multicellular filaments or single cells (yeasts), no tissues or organs, have cell walls of chitin, heterotrophs, digest food externally then absorb it,

    Saprophytes: live on dead organic matter
  118. Chapter 31

    Identify important economic and ecological roles of fungi
    Principal decomposers of ecosystems, recycle nutrients, commercially important as food, in baking, in wine and beer production.
  119. Chapter 32

    Describe destinguishing charecteristics of animals
    Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic, ingest their food, digest their food within their bodies, glycogen as energy storage molocule, no cell walls; collagen, muscle and nerve tissue-movement, development includes a blastula and gastrula, animals are diploid
  120. Chapter 32

    Discuss the signifigance of true tissues, cephalization, body cavaties and symmetry
    Symmetry determines the type of lifestyle (sessile or active), body cavaties provide space for organs, cephalization is important for movement
  121. Chapter 32

    Acoelomate?
    No body cavaty, organs limited. Tend to have a limited gastrovascular cavity.
  122. Chapter 32

    Cephalization?
    An evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equiptment on the anterior end of the body
  123. Chapter 32

    Coelomate?
    Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm. Gut surrounded by muscle. Complete digestvie system.
  124. Chapter 32

    Pseudocoelomate?
    Body cavity incompletely lined with mesoderm, but complete digestive system, organs present
  125. Chapter 32

    Symmetry?
    Radially symmetrical animals are designed to lead inactive lives-they reamin stationary or drift with the ocean currents. Bilaterally symmetrical animals are designed to live active lives, or they prowl for food or other resources. Associated with cephalization; a trend toward concentrating the sensory equiptment on the anterior end where the animal is usually first to encounter food, danger, and other stimuli.
  126. Chapter 32

    Tissues?
    An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both
  127. Chapter 34

    What are the charecteristics or chordates?
    Notochords, dorsal hollow nerve chords, pharyngeal slits or clefts, Muscular post-anal tail
  128. Chapter 34

    What are the main charecteristics of the different vertabrate classes?
    Backbone, cephalized, better developed lungs

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