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  1. Affective neuroscience
    the study of the neural mechanisms of emotion; this field combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotion, and mood
  2. Basic human emotions, translates across cultures
    FSHADS: fear, sad, happy, angry, disgust, surprise!
  3. examples of direct measures of emotion
    manipulation of emotional state followed by a self-report, or asking a subject to identify a facial expression
  4. examples of indirect measures of emotion
    Arousal of autonomic nervous system; Galvanic skin response - GSR or SCR; Judgment and decision making - evaluate possible choices; Inhibition and facilitation of response, for example in the Emotional stroop task
  5. emotional reactions to stimuli can be characterized by valence: and arousal:
    valence is the type of emotion, aka pleasantness or unpleasantness, good or bad, while arounsal is the intensity of the emotion (high or low)
  6. orbitofrontal cortex
    receives strong projections from the amygdala; may be important for a different type of decision making; some people think social and emotional factors play a role in decision making; they think orbitofrontal cortex is involved with this; disconnect between knowing what’s appropriate and what you do; idea of orbitofrontal cortex applies a social inhibition on a behavior
  7. Utilization behavior (UB)
    • type of neurobehavioral disorder that involves patients grabbing objects in view and starting
    • the ‘appropriate’ behavior associated with it at an 'inappropriate' time; such a patient has difficulty resisting the impulse to operate or manipulate objects which are in his/her visual field and within reach
  8. patients with orbitofrontal lesions show ____ skin conductance response to disturbing stimuli
    FLAT; skin conductance is a measure of sweat gland activity aka arousal
  9. Iowa Gambling Task
    SCR is measured while patients draw cards from 4 decks, two associated with net winnings (low payoffs but low losses) and two associated with net losses (high payoffs but even higher losses); healthy controls learn gamble in a way that maximizes winnings; patients with orbitofrontal lesions learn the task but fail to favor decks that result in net winnings; in ADDITION, SCR increases in healthy patients when they draw/gamble from the risky deck, but this fails to occur in lesioned patients
  10. conclusion of the deciding before knowing part of the test:
    this time every 10 cards someone would ask the participants if they thought they knew what was going on, aka ask them to verbalize which were risky and which weren't; concluded that normal subjects are using autonomic arousal to make their decision but VMPC lesions weren't because they didn't stop drawing from the risky decks
  11. Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis:
    emotional information in the form of physiological arousal is needed for decision making; this doesn't hold true for the gambling task
  12. amygdala lesions:
    there is a deficit in fear conditioning following amygdala damage but intact conscious knowledge of the association between CS and UCS (so like light or a noise, and shock)
  13. in humans, emotional learning can occur in the ABSENCE of ________ memory
    declarative; some examples include a Korsakoff's patient being pinpricked when shaking hands with a doctor, not REMEMBERING the actual prick but refusing to shake hands again
  14. LeBar's study of the woman with amygdala damage:
    • patients with amygdala damage have no trouble associating conditioned stimuli with an impending unconditioned stimuli (shock), but they don't display the same SCR as do normal patients; after cue of blue square, woman didn't exhibit classic SCR even though she knew a shock was coming; implication: our ability to associate in quick/real time the potential threat of things in our environment could depended on the amygdala
    • -OPPOSITE is found in the hippocampus; person might show a skin conductance response after cue but then wouldn’t remember that there was an association between shock and blue square
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