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  1. language
    set of symbols we use as a means of communication; has structure at many different levels, each possibly associated with seperate neural systems
  2. speech
    the mechanical process of language such as articulation & phonation
  3. Phonology
    speech sounds and their mental representation/categories
  4. Morphology
    words and word structure, stored in the mental lexicon
  5. mental lexicon
    a mental store of information about words, including semantic information (meanings of the words), syntactic information (rules for using the words), and the details of word forms (spelling and sound patterns)
  6. Syntax
    sentence structure
  7. Semantics
    Word and sentence meaning
  8. Orthography
    visual representation of words
  9. Aphasia
    language problems as a result of brain damage
  10. Anomia
    the inability to name objects (think nom, like name); can result from damage to wernickie's area or the surrounding tissue
  11. Dysarthria
    inability to control articulatory muscles
  12. Speech Apraxia
    difficulty in the proninciation of words; problems programming articulations
  13. Broca's Aphasia
    type of aphasia that's characterized by speech and writing difficulties but still being able to comprehend others' speech (so no comprehension problems); can exhibit slight comprehension problems b/c of agrammatism; main symptoms are slow/effortful speech, difficulty repeating speech because of dysarthria, and inability to comprehend reversible sentences
  14. agrammatism
    deficits in processing grammatical aspects of language; the inability to speak in a grammatically correct fashion; may have telegraphic speech, a speech pattern with simplified sentences without function
  15. Broca’s Aphasia
    also called EXPRESSIVE aphasia (compare to receptive, Wernicke's); patient understands the question, but can’t SPEAK what they want to say
  16. Penfield, surgery
    could arrest speech (stop patients from reading while having brain surgery) by applying electrical stimulation to Broca's area
  17. anterior insula
    located underneath broca’s area, and is often impacted in people who have broca’s aphasia
  18. arcuate fasciculus
    big bundle of white matter fascia that connects the anterior insula to Broca’s area (and the inferiorfrontal gyrus); Broca’s aphasia can result not only from damage to Brodmann areas 44/45 (Broca's) but ALSO from damage to Anterior Insula and Arcuate Fasciculus
  19. Wernicke's Aphasia
    RECEPTIVE aphasia; damage to the posterior parts of the left hemisphere that results in comprehension deficits (opposite of Brocca’s which is an issue with expression); symptom is that speech is fluent but filled with paraphasias (aka semantic errors, like substituting television for television, or saying non-words)
  20. 3 types of Paraphasias:
    • Neologistic: utterances that aren't words ('romer')
    • Semantic: word substitution, can have similar meanings (Ex: knife for spoon)
    • Phonemic: sound for spoon (ex: 'scoon' for 'spoon')
  21. conduction aphasia
    occurts when the arcuate fasciculus (pathway from Wernicke's to Broca's area) is damaged; results in problems producing & repeating speech, paraphasias, can understand words/and even own speech errors but cannot repair them
  22. Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model
    A is wernicke's (sotres information about word sounds), M is Broca's (speech planning area), and B is where concepts are stored; model assumes that 3 individual areas function seperately and are simply connected by white matter tracts
  23. Probelms with the Classic Model
    too simplistic: comprehension cannot be confined to a single area; ex: cases of both broca's and wernicke's aphasia have been found in patients without lesions in those specific areas
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