Psych Chpt 7

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mking_nu
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83626
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Psych Chpt 7
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2011-05-03 21:36:33
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Psych
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Exam 2, memory
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  1. the nervous system's capability to acquire (through storage and retrival of info) and retain usable skills and knowledge
    -the persistence of learning over time
    Memory
  2. have problem of retrieval of info
    -they can encode, but cannot retrieve knowledge, memories
    Retrograde Amnesiacs
  3. have problems of encoding and storage
    Can't form new memories or store new info, but can recall old info
    EX: dori from finding nemo
    Anterograde Amnesics
  4. the processing of info so that it can be stored
    *happens automatically when events are highly emotional or vivid/salient/surprising
    *only thinks paid attention to are encoded
    *if you don not initially encode something, you will never be able to and you can never recall it
    *can also happen effortfully (ex: studying)
    **Information is changed to neural code**
    Encoding
  5. structural encoding, noticing physcial features
    Shallow
  6. phonemic, what words sound like or rhyme with
    Intermediate
  7. meaning--> can take place in many forms
    Deep
  8. easier to remember concrete and vivid objects or events, so visual image mneumonics ccan work
    ex: grocery list by putting items in places around the "house"
    Imagery
  9. thinking about information
    a type of deep level processing
    Elaboration
  10. you are more likely to remember information when you connect it to yourself
    Self-Reference Effect
  11. 1/3 of a second, sensory infor persists in its original form
    -memory for sensory information that is stored briefly close to its original sensory form
    ex: why our vision is not jerky when we move our heads
    Sensory Memory
  12. limited capacity that can maintain unrehersed material for 20 seconds
    Short-term Memory
  13. theoretically unlimited in capacity
    Long-term Memory
  14. an active processing system that holds different types of information available for current use
    storage duration- 20-30 sec
    Capacity- 7 +/- 2 items
    Short-term/working memory
  15. can separate chunks of meaningful information to help us remember
    can remember 7 chunks each with more information
    Chunking
  16. one for holding onto visuouspatioal infromation and another for auditory/verbal(ex: reading to self) info
    Multiple short term systems
  17. unlimited in capacity and can hold for unlimited amount of time, organized
    Long-term Memory
  18. learning over time
    distributed practice
  19. cramming
    mass practice
  20. the system underlying unconcious memory
    implicit memory
  21. the processes involved when people remember a specific memory
    explicit memory
  22. a type of explicit memory
    *knowledge that can be declared, stuff you can talk about
    declarative memory
  23. memory for knowledge about the world
    semantic memory
  24. memory for one's personal past experiences (autobiographica)
    it is lost in retrograde amnesia
    episodic memory
  25. a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioral habits
    involves: motor memory and habitual patterns of behavior and associations formulated by classical conditioning (ex: little albert's continued fear despite not remembering actual experiment)
    Procedural memory
  26. remembering to do something in the future
    prospective memory
  27. learned through removal of different parts of rats' cortexes....
    less cortex=less memory DUH
    Lashey
  28. his study: temporal stimulus lead to recall of events, but so did stimulus to other areas
    Penfield
  29. no single storage place for memories
    -memory for sensory experiences stored/activated in same sensory cortex as original experience
    Current theory on the seat of memory
  30. part of brain important for explicit or declarative memory, consolidation
    **removal leads to anterograde amnesia
    important for spatial memory
    hippocampus
  31. process of transfer of contents from immediate memory to long term memory
    consolidation
  32. part of brain important for encoding and working memory
    *the prefrontal is associated with deeper encoding
    holding onto info long enough to acto on it ex: goal pursuit)
    ex: monkey's with damaged ____ could not remember to find food under cloth is distracted or covered for too long
    frontal lobes
  33. seat for emotional memories- often implicit
    behave in accordance with memory but no declarative recollection
    Ex: HM's mom died, he grieved but did not know why
    Amygdala
  34. the act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it
    can be automatic or effortful
    can be enhanced by cues encoded w/memory
    Retrieval
  35. external cues (location, odors, etc) which were identical to when you stored the memory
    context dependent memory
  36. internal cues (mood, drugs, etc)
    state dependent memory
  37. a confusion in memory caused by cues in a new situation that are strongly similar to cues in the past
    -usually recalls episodic memories
    Deja-vu
  38. most memories are a construction rather than a reflection
    reconstruction
  39. memory can be altered by future interpretations/expectations
    ex: loftus car accident experiment
    misinformation effect
  40. can remember information without the source
    ex: Raegan war story
    source monitoring-errors
  41. when memory is false and source is internal
    ex: imagination, dreams, parents telling a story- you"remember" it
    Lochtus study- kid lost in mall
    *pedophile fear and leading questions-->led to rash of "remembered" memories
    Reality-monitoring errors
  42. most forgetting occurs rapidly after we have learned something
    -learned list of words
    *recall decays more rapidly than recognition
    Ebbinghoaus's Forgetting Curves
  43. most of this occurs because of interference
    forgetting
  44. when new information interferes with old
    ex: learning a new phone number and forgetting the old one
    Retroactive forgetting
  45. when old information interferes with new information
    ex: getting a new number that has similar numbers
    Proactive Forgetting
  46. Freud thatough that we pushed negative memories into subconscious
    -->tied w/ pedophile discovery
    Motivated Forgetting
  47. then inability to retrieve a memory from long-term storage
    normal ____ is helpful, we only remember important things, too much info can get confusing
    Forgetting
  48. will forget spanish, but will be easier to "relearn" it because of savings
    Ebbinghaus's methods of savings
  49. Divided into Forgetting and Distortion
    Theory of Schacter
    Transcience
    Absentmindedness
    Blocking
    Misattribution
    Suggestibility
    Bias
    Persistence
    7 Sins of Memory
  50. one of seven sins of memory
    reduced memory over time
    -forgetting
    transcience
  51. one of seven sins of memory
    reduced memory due to lack of attention
    -forgetting
    Absentmindedness
  52. one of seven sins of memory
    inability to remember needed information
    -forgetting
    Blocking
  53. one of seven sins of memory
    assigning a memory to a wrong source
    -distortion
    Misattribution
  54. one of seven sins of memory
    altering a memory becasue of misleading information
    -distortion
    Suggestibility
  55. one of seven sins of memory
    influence of current knowledge on our memory for past events
    -Distortion
    Bias
  56. one of seven sins of memory
    the resurgence of unwanted or distrubing memories of what we would like to forget (ex: PTSD)
    -Distortion
    Persistence
  57. a type of blocking
    where you cannot recall specific/obscure words
    tip of the toungue phenomena
  58. the inattentive or shallow encoding of events
    absentmindedness
  59. deficits in long-term memory that results from disease, brain injury or psychological trauma
    amnesia
  60. strategies for improving memory
    mneumonics
  61. a mneumonic
    testing more effective than rereading
    _____ recalling info
    Practice
  62. to think about the meaning, and use your own words
    this is a deeper level of processing=better memory
    elaborate
  63. practice recalling, cramming not as good as multiple sessions
    Overlearn
  64. a good way to improve memory, recollection
    I need some
    Adequate sleep
  65. a good way to remember things, used often in slogans and advertisments
    verbal mneumonics
  66. a type of imagery
    visually placing objects in familiar locations
    method of loci
  67. a method of imagery
    putting/visualizing new info on pegs
    Pegs

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