Psych Chpt 8

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  1. mental activity such as thinking or representing infor
    mental content and processes: memory, learning, representation, problem solving, intelligence, language
  2. a mental representation that has some of the physcial characteristics of the object; it is analogous to the object
    analog/sensory representation
  3. an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea
    Propostitional/symbolic representation
  4. the best example of a concept
    ex: apple- i think of a red delicious
  5. actual examples of the concept you have experience
    -->they often shape the prototype
  6. information about common situtations and rules
  7. information about common situations and rules and ALSO carry information about appropriate sequences of behavior
    ex: eating at a restaurant
  8. when representation is too rigid, specifically wen you only imagine one function of an object
    -it is harmful to creative problem solving
    mental sets influence everyday behavior- ex: rainy day parking lot experiment
    Functional Fixedness
  9. a sudden flash of how to solve a problem
    Kohler and Apes study- stacking to get banana
    it is the role of the right hemisphere
  10. hemisphere responsible for find coding, strong activation but narrowly focused
    left hemisphere
  11. hemishpere responsible for course coding, weak activation of many associations
    right hemisphere
  12. ability to reason and use knowledge to probelm solve
  13. Intelligence Quotient
    Mental Age/Real Age X 100
    100= average
    130 Gifted
    70 MR
    tries to reflect thinking not knowledge
    *influenced by environment and heredity
    Mental age developed by Binet
    IQ developed by Stern
  14. Rosenthal studies
    • "gifted" and "normal" rats taught to run maze
    • Students deemed as "bloomers"
  15. Different treatment by teacers
    Warmth, level of input, Response OPPORTUNITIES, FEEDBACK
  16. if reminded of a stereotype, a person will do better/worse based on stereotype
    Stereotype Threat
  17. the idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities
    Theory of Spearman
    General Intelligence (g)
  18. information processing in novel or complex situations
    fluid intelligence
  19. knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use that knowledge
    crystallized intelligence
  20. founded theory that there are 2 types of intelligence, crystallized and fluid
  21. there are 7 distinct types of intelligence
    Theory of Gardner
    Bodily Kinestic
    Multiple Intelligence
  22. a form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to guid thoughts and actions
    Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
  23. symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols
  24. basic sounds used in a language
    each language uses different ones
    we can produce 1000+ but probably developed b/c of ease of production and perception
  25. smallest units of "meaning" in language
    -prefixes, suffixes, even single letters
  26. rules of a langage that tell you what is allowable in combination
  27. when a continuous stream of info is *perceived* as categories with boundaries
    ex: ba v. pa sound
    Categorical Perception
  28. Age when babies babble without imitation, using all the phomenes
    4 Months
  29. age when babies babbling reflects the household (use those phomenes)
    10 Months
  30. 1 word stage for babies
    12 months
  31. one word = a whole sentence
    ex: Give!
  32. age of telegraphic speech
    ex: Zack want cookie!
    24 months
  33. age of comlex constructions, using syntax
    36 months
  34. age of grammatical speech, know 10,000 words
  35. Why children learn language so quickly?
    Perspective of Skinner though language development followed familiar learning principles: association, imitation, reinforcement
    Behaviorist Perspective
  36. Why children learn language so quickly?
    Perspective of Chomsky, thought inborn human ability, but that there might be a critical period
    Nativist Perspective
  37. using information to determine if a conclusion is valid or reasonable
  38. attempting to select the best choice among several options
    decision making
  39. finding a way around an obstacle to achieve a goal
    problem solving
  40. using a belief or rule to determine if a conclussion is valid
    Diff. between valid conclussion and truth?
    Deductive Reasoning
  41. using examples of instances to determine if a rule or conclussion is likely to be true
    the scientific method is an example of this reasoning
    inductive reasoning
  42. assumptions, used in deductive reasoning
  43. If A then B
  44. All A are B
    All B are C
    Therefore, all A are C
    *this can be confused with ambiguous terms
    schema influence and can affect this
  45. models of humans making the right/best decisions
    normative models
  46. models of humans misinterpretting/misrepresenting probabilities- irrational behavior
    descriptive models
  47. a normative models, how humans should make decisions
    Expected Utility Function
  48. in problem solving, shortcuts to reduce the amount of thinking that is needed to move from inital state to goal state
    *can lead to bias
    ex: buying brand names
  49. procedure that if followed correctly will always produce the right outcome
  50. making decision based on answer which is most easily accessible
    availability heuristic
  51. the effect of presentation on how info is perceived
  52. 1) take into account ppl's wealth in decisions
    2) losses feel worse than gains feel good-->we avoid situation w/ loses
    developed by Tversky and Kahnmemn
    Prospect theory
  53. we avoid situations with losses
    lose aversion
  54. Aspects of cognitive performance that have an effect on IQ
    • Mental Processing (speed)
    • Working Memory
    • Brain structure and function (ex: volume/size)
  55. have minimal intellectual capabilites in most domains, but at early age show exceptional ability at some "intelligent" processes
  56. making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
    availability heuristic
  57. a rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category
    representativeness heuristic
  58. people are not good at knowing how they will feel about something in the future; and generally do not realize how poor they are at predicting their future feeling
    affective forecasting
Card Set
Psych Chpt 8
Exam 2, Cognition, intelligence and Knowledge
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