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What are motives?
Tendency to desire and seek out positive incentives/rewards and to avoid negative outcomes
What is drive reduction theory?
- motivation comes from desire to reduce internal, uncomfortable state (drive) when needs aren't fulfilled
- ex. hunger, water, warmth
What is homeostasis?
an internal state of equilibrium in the body
What are the strengths and weaknesses of drive reduction theory?
- explains some drives (ex. needing food, water, warmth)
- does NOT explain certain aspects of biological motives (ex. over eating) or times when there is motivation to increase tension (ex. riding a roller coaster, watching scary movies)
What is the Yerkes-Dodson Law?
- general relationship between performance and arousal level
- ex. sleep
How did Maslow describe motivation?
- theory that humans have multiple, different motives, some of which take presedence over others
- lowest level (most important): physiological needs (ex. hunger, thirst)
- safety and security needs (ex. safe house)
- belongingness and love needs: motivation to be with others, be loved, and appreciated by others (ex. hanging with friends)
- esteem needs: to acheive, be competent, and gain approval and recognition (ex. getting a good grade on a test)
- Cognitive needs: to know, understand, and explore (ex. going to school)
- Aesthetic needs: symmetry, order and beauty (ex. hygene, make-up)
- Self-actualization needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize one's potential (ex. living life to the fullest)
- highest level (least important): Transcendence (ex. going to church)
What were some criticisms of Maslow’s theory?
- not enough evidence to prove it correct
- often contradict Maslow's notion that we must fulfill lower needs before we can be concerned with the higher order needs
How do psychologists define emotions? What are the three main components?
- emotion: a complex reaction to some internal or external event that involves
- physiological reactions,
- behavioral reactions, and
Differentiate between the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard theory, and Schacter-Singer two factor theory of emotion
- James-Lange theory: emotion is a unique pattern of physiological arousal
- Cannon-Bard theory: emotions originate in the brain, not the body
- Schacter-Singer two factor theory of emotion: emotions result when we cognitively interpret our physiological reactions in light of the situation
a theory of emotion that defines an emotion as a unique pattern of physiological arousal
a theory of emotion that states that emotions originate in the brain, not the body
Schacter-Singer two factor theory of emotion
a theory that states that emotions result when we cognitively interpret our physiological reactions in light of the situation
What is the facial feedback hypothesis? What are some applications of this theory?
- our emotional state is influenced by the feedback our brain gets from facial muscles
- applications: FBI, CIA, Clinicians survey, marketing, lawyers, interview
What are the 6 “basic” emotions? Which one is the easiest to identify? What are the cross-cultural implications?
- 6 basic emotions: happy, sad, angry, suprised, fear, disgust
- Easiest to identify: happy
- cross-cultural implications: