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What is a living cell?
A cell is a unit surrounded by a plasma membrane. Inside the cell there are various structures, and a water based solution of chemicals called as cytosol.
-all living organisms, including prokaryotes contain chromosomes.
- -organized in region called nucleoid
- -contains genes with genetic information
- -small circle DNA rings
- -multiply in bacterial cell
- -carry genetic genes but only adapt to unusual conditions
What else does a prokaryotic cell contain?
- -few organelles
- -cell wall
- -some have flagella (for movement)
- -true nucleus
- -complex membrane bound organelles (able to carry out many functions simultaneously)
- -carries chromosomes
- -linear chromosomes
- -inside nucleus theres nucleolus (ribosomal RNA formed, and ribosomes assembled)
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
- -An extensive network of membranes attached to the nuclear envelope.
- -It is called rough, because numerous ribosomes are located on it, producing proteins.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SmoothER)
A similar membrane network, but ribosomes are not found on it. It stores calcium for the cell, and produces lipds.
is like a stack of flattened plates. They receive proteins produced on roughER, package and ship them to destinations.
are the sites of protein synthesis. They can be found attached to roughER or freely floating in the cytosol.
carry out hazardous oxidation reactions inside them, quickly destroying the side products like hydrogen peroxide before they harm the cell.
- -The digestive centers. They carry enzymes to digest foods that get into cells by endocytosis.
- -Endocytosis can happen as phagocytosis, pinocytosis, or receptor mediated endocytosis.
- -Lysosomes can also destroy damaged organelles by autophagy.
- -Found mostly in plant and fungal cells.
- -They keep plant cells rigid, store waste and calcium, and carry out chemical reactions.
The power houses of the cell. They break down glucose to carbon dioxide and water, and the energy released during this process is stored in ATP, the mobile energy molecule of all cells.
The centers of photosynthesis in all green cells. They have an extensive membrane system carrying chlorophyll pigments to capture light energy that is used to make glucose.
The Cell Wall
Found in plant and fungal cells, but NOT in animal cells. It protects the cell from the environment.
An extensive network of protein fibers inside the cell. They make cells strong, and help moving things inside the cell, as well as moving whole cells from place to place.