ch.5 &6.1 Carbohydrates and Lipids

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  1. Carbohydrate groups
    • -Monosaccharides: one sugar unit (ex. glucose)
    • -Disaccharides: two sugar units (ex.sucrose)
    • -Oligosaccharides: several sugar units (ex. fruto..fruits and veggies)
    • -Polysaccharides: many sugar units (ex. starch)
  2. Sugar and Monomers
    • -number of carbon atoms in sugar molecule make them different.
    • -hydroxly (OH) group location
    • -caboxyl group (C=C) location
  3. Polysaccharide Structure
    • -monosaccharides link by glycosidic linkages to make dimers, oligomers, and polymers.
    • - the properties on these linkages vary depending on linkages and orientation
    • -orientation of hydroxyl groups it is called an alpha (α) or beta (β) linkage.
  4. Function of Carbohydrates
    • -determine cell identity
    • -storage units for energy (when broken down, energy released used to make ATP for cell)
    • -structural components in cells
    • 1.cellulose makes up plant cell
    • 2.chitin-external skeleton of insects
    • 3.peptidoglycan-makes bacterial cell walls
  5. Lipids
    • -nonpolar and don't dissolve in water because..
    • -hydrocarbon (C-H)
    • -hydrophobic
  6. What are the most important lipids?
    • 1. Fats and Oils
    • 2.Steroids
    • 3.Phospholipids
  7. Fats
    Three long fatty acids are linked to glycerol (a three carbon compound) by three ester bonds.
  8. Steroids
    They all have a common 4-ring structure, with various side groups/chains attached. The biggest part of the molecule is hydrophobic, however, some side groups may be hydrophilic.
  9. Phospholipids
    Two long fatty acid chains (hydrophobic tails) are linked to glycerol. Theremaining carbon on the glycerol is attached to a phosphate. This makes the head region veryhydrophilic.
  10. Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic
    • Hydrophilic: likes water
    • Hydrophobic:stays away from water
    • together are amphipathic
  11. Saturated
    tails are a straight line
  12. Unsaturated
    tails are bent
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ch.5 &6.1 Carbohydrates and Lipids
final exam
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