Sociology Final

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Sociology Final
2011-05-08 21:11:42
Sociology final

Sociology HUGE FINAL!
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  1. what is the largest minority group in th US today?
    Latino american
  2. African american are distinguished from the majority of american on the basis of...
    color, their history of Slavery, and a negative social status.
  3. the practice of systematically destroying a whole race is...
  4. the best predictore of peoples earnings is their...
    family background.
  5. prverty cannot be solved by finding jobs for the adult poor population because.
    many work but the pay is below poverty level.
  6. people generally feel warmest toward people who are..
    in their own social class.
  7. the dominant group in society, according to conflict theorist is...
    legitimates its power by developing an ideology
  8. Labeling theory describes and analyzes..
    how people define and interpret deviant acts
  9. an extra Y chromosome in males is
    commonly found in males who are not criminals.
  10. relatice deprivation occurs when someone owns less than members of his or her
    reference groups.
  11. kristy hold a higher social position than her father, she has experienced...
    intergenerational mobility and upward mobility.
  12. the worth and valuse of the individual is...
    learned in all societies.
  13. research has shown that young people in th US today
    spend more times with one another outside of school
  14. effective social control depends largely on
    self control and informal social controls
  15. Any deviation from the norms of a society is considered deviant by those adopting a
    statistical view
  16. socialization is the process of
    learning a culture, a language, and to walk and talk.
  17. spitz's study of children in hospitals showed the difference between the foundling home and the nursing home to be
    amount of social interation experienced by the child.
  18. persons arrested for criminal act are disproportionetly
    young adult males from a minority group.
  19. the wild boy of aveyron probably had different ways of doing things becuase he...
    learned different things when he lived in the wild.
  20. isabelle was a young girl who has been isolated from brith and who...
    developed physically and soccially only after she interacted with and was taught by others.
  21. children develop slowly when they are isolated, according to sociologists, because they..
    have not been stimulated in interaction.
  22. role-taking is the term used by George Herbert Mean to describe
    the process of figuring out how others will act.
  23. cooley called the process of self development and awarnedd the
    looking glass self.
  24. Young people are more likely to be deviant than older people because
    they dont have as much to lose
  25. the primary agency of socialization was
    the family.
  26. the most likely social explination for sex diffenentials in crime rates is...
    girls are supervised more closely than boys
  27. peer group socialization is becoming
    more important.
  28. schools teach
    basic skills, competitive behavior, and self-discipline.
  29. TV demands...
    less imagination than reading.
  30. behavior approprite to members of one's own sex is...
    learned through socialization.
  31. gender role socialization begins
    at birth.
  32. when driving our cars we stop at red lights, whether or not a cop is present this is a form of...
    internalized social control.
  33. inequity becomes stratification when it is institution and
    based on membership in a status.
  34. Deciance is
    Behavior that violates norms.
  35. Fear, ridicule, jail, and fines are all examples of
  36. Deviant behavior may vary
    from time to time, place to place and culture to culture.
  37. what is the primary ideology that justifies social stratification in the U.S.
    the American Dream
  38. Mertons theory of anomie refers to
    a strain between culturally prescribed goals and ways of achieving them.
  39. people who cannot conform to society's goals can..
    retreat, follow the rules, and rebel.
  40. according to Merton. _________ occurs when people accept society's goals goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them.
  41. the process of changing one's social class is called.
    social mobility.
  42. who do sociologists classify females as a minority group.
    women are discriminated against.
  43. according to labeling theory, a person is not deviant untill he or she is..
    labeled deviant by other people.
  44. The most extreme form of racism is
  45. official statistics on crime
    underreport crime.
  46. most people do not behave in a devian way because
    they have internalised the norms.
  47. "having a conscience" assumes you have ...
    internalized certain ideas about devient behavior.
  48. industrial societies are more ____ than other societies.
  49. Social clss, according to weber , is based on...
    wealth and life chances to accumulare wealth.
  50. Social Status refers to ...
    Honor and pretige given by the communtiy.
  51. income, education, and occupation are often used to obtain a measure of a persons.
    socioecomomic status.
  52. structural functional theoriests suggest that stratification occurs because
    society has unequal need for different types of work.
  53. conflict theorists suggest that stratification occurss because
    individuals use coercion and exploitation to accumulate scarce resources.
  54. sociologists generally agree that when stratification occurs there is....
    a consensus that inequality is good fair anf just.
  55. what term would mead use to refer to the norms, valus attidues and expectations of the public?
    gerealized others
  56. poverty is defined as
    having less than necessary for food, shelter, and medical care.
  57. the oppertunities a person has to improve his or her income and lifestyles is known as:
    life chances.
  58. if a society is ethnically stratified it has what elements
    ethnocentrism, competition for scarce resources and un equal power
  59. Racial groups are
    socially defined based on selected biological characteristics.
  60. ethnic groups are identified by
    cultural characteristics with a consciousness of kind
  61. minority groups are groups that
    have less power fewr privileges than the majority group.
  62. in his study of "authoritarian personality" Adorno founf that authoritarian personalitites
    generally dislike and resist change, and are more inclined to be prejudices
  63. Prejudices is reduced when,
    people can meet in pleasant sircumstances.
  64. discrimincation is an
    action intended to exclude another group.
  65. mead describes the active, creative and spontaneous part of the self as the
  66. mead describes the socialized self as the
  67. cultural pluralism occurs when variety of
    racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctive cultural patterns.
  68. the minority group that has the lowest life ecpectancy, lowest school enrollment rates, and highest rate of alcoholism is/.are the
    Native americans
  69. affirmatice action originally meant to
    seek out minorities and provide equal opportunity .
  70. Social status is a
    socially defined position of an individual in society
  71. a set of expected behaviors
    Social Role
  72. sociologists study life to understand
    the regular recurrent patterns in social life.
  73. human behavior is to a large extent shaped by
    social groups.
  74. Ascribed status
    assigned at birth
  75. chosen or earned
    achieved status.
  76. role conflict occurs when..
    2 or more statuses are incompatible
  77. which variable do sociologists emphasize the most a being the determining motivation for our thinking and behavior
    one's society and social location
  78. what is the major differences between primary and secondary groups is their
    size, amount of facetoface contact and extent of personal intimacy
  79. social science is likely to have as its primary goal
    the aquisition of knowledge.
  80. in groups and out groups differ from each other in
    the feeling of belonging
  81. in groups tend to see out groups in..
  82. anthropology primarily studies...
    society as a whole
  83. peer groups are groups of people who are usually...
    the same age.
  84. psychology is primarily concerned with
    individual mental processes and behavior.
  85. reference groups are
    groups of people identified with psychologically.
  86. the fielnd in which the principles of the social sciences are applied to social problems is
    Social work.
  87. communication skills are best understood
  88. sociology is useful in helping us understand ourselves
    because we are social creatures.
  89. father of sociology
  90. social engineeing would most likely involve
    changing social systems to meet new goals.
  91. according to durhkeim, higher suicide rates are expected for those people who have a low level of
    social intergration.
  92. Marx believed that at the core of every society is
    social conflict.
  93. relative deprivation occurs when someone owns less than members of his or her
    reference group.
  94. what term does Durhkeim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds
    social integration.
  95. Bureaucracies are characterized by
    a hierarchical structure.
  96. verstehen is a word used by Weber in discussing the importance of understanding the
    Subjective meanings people have as they interact in society.
  97. Goals are clearly stated in a
  98. example of ________ is a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals.
    Social interaction.
  99. Functions that are not intended or recognized are..
    latent functions.
  100. Explanations for a given phenomena are
  101. the most common method of information gathering used by sociologists is the
  102. a position in society that is more importants than other in the status set is
    a Master Status.
  103. Norms that develop among a group of students living in the same dorm would most likely be the basis of an
  104. Structural functional theory defines structure as any part of the ...
    social system.
  105. structural functional theory defines function as any purpose of the ...
    social system.
  106. Functions that are intended and recognized in a social system are
    manifest functions.
  107. to a sociologist culture is a society's
    ideas, vaules, beliefs, and technology.
  108. Marx based his conflict theory on the simple assumpiton that the organization if society is determined by its ____________ organization
  109. contemporary conflict theorists believe that conflict is
    a permanent feature of social life.
  110. symbolic interaction theoru has a ________ orientation
  111. a disregaurd for history indicated
  112. symbolic interaction theory allows us to
    talk to ourselves, to others and stop at red lights.
  113. groups that have values and norms differing in someways from those of the larger society are...
  114. symbol of group identity, means of communication, and means of cultural maintenance is
  115. when a groups norms and values are in serious conflict with those of the society of which it is a part, the group has characteristics of a
  116. the view that a society should be judged on its own terms, not in comparison with others, is called
    cultural relativism.
  117. the ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what Mills refers to as
    the sociological imagination
  118. the existence of culture is dependent on poeple's ability to create and understand
  119. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggest that
    societies with different languages perciece the world differently.
  120. the variable that is affected by another is the
    dependent variable
  121. a preference for foreign imports is and example of
  122. ethnocentrism can be functional for a society when
    it builds conformity and cohesiveness.
  123. the statement "age at marriage is negatively related to family size" is an example of
    a hypothesis
  124. Rules of conduct or social expectations for behavior are called
    social norms.
  125. people are said to be ________ when they believe the cultural groups they belong to sets the standards for all others.
  126. Mores
    have punishment for violations
  127. Folkways
    dont have punishment for violations
  128. cultural lag occurs when changes in technology occur more rapidly than changes in
    Beliefs and values.
  129. the control group is identical to the experimental groups except that the experiemental variable is
    not introduced to the control group.
  130. when the laws of the land do not reflect culturla mores the laws will be given
    low priority in enforement.
  131. conflict theorists maintain:
    certain groups of held down by the rich and powerful, justice serves the rich but not poor, the powerful define what is deviant behavior.
  132. as the size of groups increases
    euqality among group members increases.
  133. a small groups, informal group of people who interact in a personal direct and intimate way.
    Primary group
  134. group in which the members interact impersonally and have few emotional ties
    secondary groups.
  135. the view the one's own culture is superior to other and should be used as the standard against which other cultures are judged.
  136. the belief that cultures must be judged on their own terms rather then by the standards of another culture.
    cultural relativism
  137. formal and informal rules of conduct and social expectations for behavior.
  138. norms of conduct of everyday life that bring only mild censure or punishment if they are violated.
  139. Norms of conduct associated with stong feelings of right or wrong, violations of which bring intense reaction and some type of punishment
  140. formal standardised expressions of norms enacted by legislative is to regulate certain types of behaviors
  141. intended consequences of a social system
    Manifest Functions
  142. the unintended consequences of a social system
    Latent Functions
  143. as the size of a group increases _________ ______ change
    communication patterns
  144. the system of ideas values, beliefs, knowledge norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society
  145. a group of interacting who live in a specific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperactive manner and who share a common culture.
  146. the ability to see how history and biography together influnce our lives
    sociological imagination
  147. the structures ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuated unequal rewards and power in a society
  148. differences between groups in wealth, status and power
  149. the biological and anatomical characteristics the differentiate males and females
  150. a social status that refers to differences between sexes, specifically to differences in masculinity and feminitiy
  151. the statistical study of population, especially data on birth rates, death rates, marriages rates, health and migration
  152. families in which two or more persons are related by blood marriage, or adoptions and who share a common residence
    Nuclear Family
  153. that which belongs to the realm of the everyday world, anything considered mundane and unspirital
  154. involving objects and ideas that are treated with reverance and awe
  155. a family structure in which the husband dominates the wife
  156. a family structure in iwhch the wife dominated the husband
  157. the marriage of one man and one woman
  158. the marriage of one man or woman to more than one person of the opposite sex at the same times
  159. the marriage of one woman to more then one husband at the same time
  160. the marriage of one man to more than one wife at the same time
  161. persons that one identifies with psychology and whose opinions are considered important
    Sigificant others
  162. the assumption that other people have similar attitudes, values, beliefs, and expectations.
    Generalized others.
  163. a group of kin united by blood, marriage, or adoption who share a commonresidence for somepart of their lives and assume reciprocal rights and obligation with reguard to one another
  164. an organized community of believers who hold certain things sacred and follow a set of beliefs ceremonies, or special behaviors
  165. a measure of the rate at which people die
  166. a measure of the rate at which people are being born
  167. a socially defined group distinguished by selected inherited phsyical characteristics
  168. a group set apart from others b.c of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns, such as religion, language pr region or the country
    Ethnic Group
  169. a marriage norm requiring a person to marry someone from outside his or her own group
  170. a marriage norm requireing a person to marry someone from his or her own group.
  171. divorce factors
    marrying young, have parents who divorced, and bearing a child before marriage.
  172. Current World population
    about 6.9 billion