Card Set Information
Sociology HUGE FINAL!
what is the largest minority group in th US today?
African american are distinguished from the majority of american on the basis of...
color, their history of Slavery, and a negative social status.
the practice of systematically destroying a whole race is...
the best predictore of peoples earnings is their...
prverty cannot be solved by finding jobs for the adult poor population because.
many work but the pay is below poverty level.
people generally feel warmest toward people who are..
in their own social class.
the dominant group in society, according to conflict theorist is...
legitimates its power by developing an ideology
Labeling theory describes and analyzes..
how people define and interpret deviant acts
an extra Y chromosome in males is
commonly found in males who are not criminals.
relatice deprivation occurs when someone owns less than members of his or her
kristy hold a higher social position than her father, she has experienced...
intergenerational mobility and upward mobility.
the worth and valuse of the individual is...
learned in all societies.
research has shown that young people in th US today
spend more times with one another outside of school
effective social control depends largely on
self control and informal social controls
Any deviation from the norms of a society is considered deviant by those adopting a
socialization is the process of
learning a culture, a language, and to walk and talk.
spitz's study of children in hospitals showed the difference between the foundling home and the nursing home to be
amount of social interation experienced by the child.
persons arrested for criminal act are disproportionetly
young adult males from a minority group.
the wild boy of aveyron probably had different ways of doing things becuase he...
learned different things when he lived in the wild.
isabelle was a young girl who has been isolated from brith and who...
developed physically and soccially only after she interacted with and was taught by others.
children develop slowly when they are isolated, according to sociologists, because they..
have not been stimulated in interaction.
role-taking is the term used by George Herbert Mean to describe
the process of figuring out how others will act.
cooley called the process of self development and awarnedd the
looking glass self.
Young people are more likely to be deviant than older people because
they dont have as much to lose
the primary agency of socialization was
the most likely social explination for sex diffenentials in crime rates is...
girls are supervised more closely than boys
peer group socialization is becoming
basic skills, competitive behavior, and self-discipline.
less imagination than reading.
behavior approprite to members of one's own sex is...
learned through socialization.
gender role socialization begins
when driving our cars we stop at red lights, whether or not a cop is present this is a form of...
internalized social control.
inequity becomes stratification when it is institution and
based on membership in a status.
Behavior that violates norms.
Fear, ridicule, jail, and fines are all examples of
Deviant behavior may vary
from time to time, place to place and culture to culture.
what is the primary ideology that justifies social stratification in the U.S.
the American Dream
Mertons theory of anomie refers to
a strain between culturally prescribed goals and ways of achieving them.
people who cannot conform to society's goals can..
retreat, follow the rules, and rebel.
according to Merton. _________ occurs when people accept society's goals goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them.
the process of changing one's social class is called.
who do sociologists classify females as a minority group.
women are discriminated against.
according to labeling theory, a person is not deviant untill he or she is..
labeled deviant by other people.
The most extreme form of racism is
official statistics on crime
most people do not behave in a devian way because
they have internalised the norms.
"having a conscience" assumes you have ...
internalized certain ideas about devient behavior.
industrial societies are more ____ than other societies.
Social clss, according to weber , is based on...
wealth and life chances to accumulare wealth.
Social Status refers to ...
Honor and pretige given by the communtiy.
income, education, and occupation are often used to obtain a measure of a persons.
structural functional theoriests suggest that stratification occurs because
society has unequal need for different types of work.
conflict theorists suggest that stratification occurss because
individuals use coercion and exploitation to accumulate scarce resources.
sociologists generally agree that when stratification occurs there is....
a consensus that inequality is good fair anf just.
what term would mead use to refer to the norms, valus attidues and expectations of the public?
poverty is defined as
having less than necessary for food, shelter, and medical care.
the oppertunities a person has to improve his or her income and lifestyles is known as:
if a society is ethnically stratified it has what elements
ethnocentrism, competition for scarce resources and un equal power
Racial groups are
socially defined based on selected biological characteristics.
ethnic groups are identified by
cultural characteristics with a consciousness of kind
minority groups are groups that
have less power fewr privileges than the majority group.
in his study of "authoritarian personality" Adorno founf that authoritarian personalitites
generally dislike and resist change, and are more inclined to be prejudices
Prejudices is reduced when,
people can meet in pleasant sircumstances.
discrimincation is an
action intended to exclude another group.
mead describes the active, creative and spontaneous part of the self as the
mead describes the socialized self as the
cultural pluralism occurs when variety of
racial and ethnic groups maintain their distinctive cultural patterns.
the minority group that has the lowest life ecpectancy, lowest school enrollment rates, and highest rate of alcoholism is/.are the
affirmatice action originally meant to
seek out minorities and provide equal opportunity .
Social status is a
socially defined position of an individual in society
a set of expected behaviors
sociologists study life to understand
the regular recurrent patterns in social life.
human behavior is to a large extent shaped by
assigned at birth
chosen or earned
role conflict occurs when..
2 or more statuses are incompatible
which variable do sociologists emphasize the most a being the determining motivation for our thinking and behavior
one's society and social location
what is the major differences between primary and secondary groups is their
size, amount of facetoface contact and extent of personal intimacy
social science is likely to have as its primary goal
the aquisition of knowledge.
in groups and out groups differ from each other in
the feeling of belonging
in groups tend to see out groups in..
anthropology primarily studies...
society as a whole
peer groups are groups of people who are usually...
the same age.
psychology is primarily concerned with
individual mental processes and behavior.
reference groups are
groups of people identified with psychologically.
the fielnd in which the principles of the social sciences are applied to social problems is
communication skills are best understood
sociology is useful in helping us understand ourselves
because we are social creatures.
father of sociology
social engineeing would most likely involve
changing social systems to meet new goals.
according to durhkeim, higher suicide rates are expected for those people who have a low level of
Marx believed that at the core of every society is
relative deprivation occurs when someone owns less than members of his or her
what term does Durhkeim use to describe the degree to which members of a society are united by shared values and other social bonds
Bureaucracies are characterized by
a hierarchical structure.
verstehen is a word used by Weber in discussing the importance of understanding the
Subjective meanings people have as they interact in society.
Goals are clearly stated in a
example of ________ is a driver signaling a right turn with his directional signals.
Functions that are not intended or recognized are..
Explanations for a given phenomena are
the most common method of information gathering used by sociologists is the
a position in society that is more importants than other in the status set is
a Master Status.
Norms that develop among a group of students living in the same dorm would most likely be the basis of an
Structural functional theory defines structure as any part of the ...
structural functional theory defines function as any purpose of the ...
Functions that are intended and recognized in a social system are
to a sociologist culture is a society's
ideas, vaules, beliefs, and technology.
Marx based his conflict theory on the simple assumpiton that the organization if society is determined by its ____________ organization
contemporary conflict theorists believe that conflict is
a permanent feature of social life.
symbolic interaction theoru has a ________ orientation
a disregaurd for history indicated
symbolic interaction theory allows us to
talk to ourselves, to others and stop at red lights.
groups that have values and norms differing in someways from those of the larger society are...
symbol of group identity, means of communication, and means of cultural maintenance is
when a groups norms and values are in serious conflict with those of the society of which it is a part, the group has characteristics of a
the view that a society should be judged on its own terms, not in comparison with others, is called
the ability to see the intimate realities of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what Mills refers to as
the sociological imagination
the existence of culture is dependent on poeple's ability to create and understand
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis suggest that
societies with different languages perciece the world differently.
the variable that is affected by another is the
a preference for foreign imports is and example of
ethnocentrism can be functional for a society when
it builds conformity and cohesiveness.
the statement "age at marriage is negatively related to family size" is an example of
Rules of conduct or social expectations for behavior are called
people are said to be ________ when they believe the cultural groups they belong to sets the standards for all others.
have punishment for violations
dont have punishment for violations
cultural lag occurs when changes in technology occur more rapidly than changes in
Beliefs and values.
the control group is identical to the experimental groups except that the experiemental variable is
not introduced to the control group.
when the laws of the land do not reflect culturla mores the laws will be given
low priority in enforement.
conflict theorists maintain:
certain groups of held down by the rich and powerful, justice serves the rich but not poor, the powerful define what is deviant behavior.
as the size of groups increases
euqality among group members increases.
a small groups, informal group of people who interact in a personal direct and intimate way.
group in which the members interact impersonally and have few emotional ties
the view the one's own culture is superior to other and should be used as the standard against which other cultures are judged.
the belief that cultures must be judged on their own terms rather then by the standards of another culture.
formal and informal rules of conduct and social expectations for behavior.
norms of conduct of everyday life that bring only mild censure or punishment if they are violated.
Norms of conduct associated with stong feelings of right or wrong, violations of which bring intense reaction and some type of punishment
formal standardised expressions of norms enacted by legislative is to regulate certain types of behaviors
intended consequences of a social system
the unintended consequences of a social system
as the size of a group increases _________ ______ change
the system of ideas values, beliefs, knowledge norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particular society
a group of interacting who live in a specific geographical area, who are organized in a cooperactive manner and who share a common culture.
the ability to see how history and biography together influnce our lives
the structures ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuated unequal rewards and power in a society
differences between groups in wealth, status and power
the biological and anatomical characteristics the differentiate males and females
a social status that refers to differences between sexes, specifically to differences in masculinity and feminitiy
the statistical study of population, especially data on birth rates, death rates, marriages rates, health and migration
families in which two or more persons are related by blood marriage, or adoptions and who share a common residence
that which belongs to the realm of the everyday world, anything considered mundane and unspirital
involving objects and ideas that are treated with reverance and awe
a family structure in which the husband dominates the wife
a family structure in iwhch the wife dominated the husband
the marriage of one man and one woman
the marriage of one man or woman to more than one person of the opposite sex at the same times
the marriage of one woman to more then one husband at the same time
the marriage of one man to more than one wife at the same time
persons that one identifies with psychology and whose opinions are considered important
the assumption that other people have similar attitudes, values, beliefs, and expectations.
a group of kin united by blood, marriage, or adoption who share a commonresidence for somepart of their lives and assume reciprocal rights and obligation with reguard to one another
an organized community of believers who hold certain things sacred and follow a set of beliefs ceremonies, or special behaviors
a measure of the rate at which people die
a measure of the rate at which people are being born
a socially defined group distinguished by selected inherited phsyical characteristics
a group set apart from others b.c of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns, such as religion, language pr region or the country
a marriage norm requiring a person to marry someone from outside his or her own group
a marriage norm requireing a person to marry someone from his or her own group.
marrying young, have parents who divorced, and bearing a child before marriage.
Current World population
about 6.9 billion