ch. 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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  1. Cellular Respiration
    • -The process that produces ATP,
    • - the energy-containing molecule that supplies energy to most of the cellular functions.
    • When the cell needs to carry out an endergonic reaction, it normally gets coupled with ATP breakdown, so that the reaction becomes energetically possible.
  2. Redox
  3. Reduction
    gaining electrons
  4. Oxidation
    gaining electrons
  5. aerobic
    • -presence of oxygen
    • -The energy released during this process is used to make ATP.
    • -makes a lot of ATP
    • -
  6. Respiration happens in 4 steps
    • 1. Glucose processing - Glycolysis(glucose is oxidized to pyruvate)
    • 2. Pyruvate processing(pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoenzymeA)
    • 3. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)(Acetyl group is oxidized to CO2)
    • 4. Electron transport and ATP formation(released energy is used to make ATP)
  7. Glycolysis
    • -happen in cytosol
    • -glucose energized
    • -2 molecules of ATP activates it
    • -sugar oxidized
    • -broken down to 2 molecules (pyruvate)
    • -captured by NAD convert to NADH
    • -four ATP's produced
    • -Results:2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
  8. Acetyl coA
    • -pyruvate produced by glycolysis transported into mitochondria
    • -in matrix of mito pyruvate broken down into acetyl group and CO2
    • -join to make acetyl coA
  9. Citric Acid cycle (Krebs Cycle)
    • -acetyl coA donates its acetyl group to krebs
    • -oxidized CO2 process
    • -electrons released captured by NAD and FAD to form NADH and FADH2
    • -
  10. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis: building a proton gradient to produce ATP.
    • -The final electron acceptor is oxygen, to make water at the end of the electron transport chain
    • -H+ ions (protons) are taken from the matrix and passed onto the other side of the membrane
    • -Protons cannot cross the membrane directly, because they are charged
    • -As ATP is produced as a result of oxidation of electron carriers, this modeof ATP production is known as oxidative phosphorylation.
  11. Phosphorylation
    adding a phosphate group
  12. Fermentation
    • -no oxygen available
    • -Without oxygen, electron transport chain stops functioning
    • -Instead, pyruvate is converted to other organic compounds like alcohol or lactic acid in the cytosol,and cells continue the process of glycolysis to produce 2 ATPs from each glucose molecule.
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ch. 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
final exam 3
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