ch. 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

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VickyMJ
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ch. 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
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2011-05-04 15:51:05
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bio1430
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final exam 3
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  1. Cellular Respiration
    • -The process that produces ATP,
    • - the energy-containing molecule that supplies energy to most of the cellular functions.
    • When the cell needs to carry out an endergonic reaction, it normally gets coupled with ATP breakdown, so that the reaction becomes energetically possible.
  2. Redox
    reduction/oxidation
  3. Reduction
    gaining electrons
  4. Oxidation
    gaining electrons
  5. aerobic
    • -presence of oxygen
    • -The energy released during this process is used to make ATP.
    • -makes a lot of ATP
    • -
  6. Respiration happens in 4 steps
    • 1. Glucose processing - Glycolysis(glucose is oxidized to pyruvate)
    • 2. Pyruvate processing(pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoenzymeA)
    • 3. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)(Acetyl group is oxidized to CO2)
    • 4. Electron transport and ATP formation(released energy is used to make ATP)
  7. Glycolysis
    • -happen in cytosol
    • -glucose energized
    • -2 molecules of ATP activates it
    • -sugar oxidized
    • -broken down to 2 molecules (pyruvate)
    • -captured by NAD convert to NADH
    • -four ATP's produced
    • -Results:2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
  8. Acetyl coA
    • -pyruvate produced by glycolysis transported into mitochondria
    • -in matrix of mito pyruvate broken down into acetyl group and CO2
    • -join to make acetyl coA
  9. Citric Acid cycle (Krebs Cycle)
    • -acetyl coA donates its acetyl group to krebs
    • -oxidized CO2 process
    • -electrons released captured by NAD and FAD to form NADH and FADH2
    • -
  10. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis: building a proton gradient to produce ATP.
    • -The final electron acceptor is oxygen, to make water at the end of the electron transport chain
    • -H+ ions (protons) are taken from the matrix and passed onto the other side of the membrane
    • -Protons cannot cross the membrane directly, because they are charged
    • -As ATP is produced as a result of oxidation of electron carriers, this modeof ATP production is known as oxidative phosphorylation.
  11. Phosphorylation
    adding a phosphate group
  12. Fermentation
    • -no oxygen available
    • -Without oxygen, electron transport chain stops functioning
    • -Instead, pyruvate is converted to other organic compounds like alcohol or lactic acid in the cytosol,and cells continue the process of glycolysis to produce 2 ATPs from each glucose molecule.

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