ch. 9. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
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- -The process that produces ATP,
- - the energy-containing molecule that supplies energy to most of the cellular functions.
- When the cell needs to carry out an endergonic reaction, it normally gets coupled with ATP breakdown, so that the reaction becomes energetically possible.
- -presence of oxygen
- -The energy released during this process is used to make ATP.
- -makes a lot of ATP
Respiration happens in 4 steps
- 1. Glucose processing - Glycolysis(glucose is oxidized to pyruvate)
- 2. Pyruvate processing(pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoenzymeA)
- 3. Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle)(Acetyl group is oxidized to CO2)
- 4. Electron transport and ATP formation(released energy is used to make ATP)
- -happen in cytosol
- -glucose energized
- -2 molecules of ATP activates it
- -sugar oxidized
- -broken down to 2 molecules (pyruvate)
- -captured by NAD convert to NADH
- -four ATP's produced
- -Results:2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
- -pyruvate produced by glycolysis transported into mitochondria
- -in matrix of mito pyruvate broken down into acetyl group and CO2
- -join to make acetyl coA
Citric Acid cycle (Krebs Cycle)
- -acetyl coA donates its acetyl group to krebs
- -oxidized CO2 process
- -electrons released captured by NAD and FAD to form NADH and FADH2
Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis: building a proton gradient to produce ATP.
- -The final electron acceptor is oxygen, to make water at the end of the electron transport chain
- -H+ ions (protons) are taken from the matrix and passed onto the other side of the membrane
- -Protons cannot cross the membrane directly, because they are charged
- -As ATP is produced as a result of oxidation of electron carriers, this modeof ATP production is known as oxidative phosphorylation.
adding a phosphate group
- -no oxygen available
- -Without oxygen, electron transport chain stops functioning
- -Instead, pyruvate is converted to other organic compounds like alcohol or lactic acid in the cytosol,and cells continue the process of glycolysis to produce 2 ATPs from each glucose molecule.
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