Neuro sleep 55.txt

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Neuro sleep 55.txt
2011-05-05 13:07:53
Neuro sleep

Neuro sleep 55
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  1. What raphe nuclei produces NE?
    Locus coeruleus
  2. what produces 5-HT (Serotonin)?
    Raphe nuclei
  3. What produces Dopamine?
    Ventral Tegmentum
  4. functions of raphe nuclei?
    • Muscle tone
    • breathing
    • coughing
    • vomiting
    • sneezing
  5. Nucleus in charge of circadian rhythms / light and dark?
  6. how many nightly sleep cycles and average length?
    • 5-7
    • 90 minute average
  7. Two main stages of sleep?
    • 1) SWS: 1,2,3,4 with 4 being the deepest
    • 2) REM: EEG, EOG active while EMG is not because of muscle paralysis
  8. when does the majority of slow and REM sleep occur, night or morning?
    • Slow: night
    • REM: morning
  9. What is the common EEG change in voltage and frequency during sleep?
    • start: high frequency, low voltage
    • middle: low frequency, high voltage
  10. What specific EEG marks appear in level 2 of slow-wave sleep?
    Spindles and K-complex
  11. Slow-wave Adaptive hypothesis?
    conserve energy
  12. Slow-wave restorative-hypothesis?
    • high mental capacity = high temperature = more slow wave sleep
    • required to repair body & secrete GH
  13. REM sleep ontogeny hypothesis?
    • Nervous system growth and development
    • * Fetus sleeps 50% of time in REM
  14. REM sleep learning hypothesis?
    REM sleep retains information and prepares for learning the next day
  15. slow-wave circutry?
    • 1) dark = melatonin, hypothalamus stops producing histamine
    • 2) Ascending RAS activates Pons cholinergic cells to activate the pre-optic area of hypothalamus
    • 3) thalamocortical firing is inhibited
    • 4) EEG slows down
  16. REM circutry?
    • 1) GABAergic neurons turned off = no NE or 5-HT (Serotonin) produced
    • 2) cholinergic cells in Pons are turned on
    • 3) High Ach release causes EEG, EOG and PGO waves to increase while EMG waves decreases due to paralysis
  17. T/F: insomnia is a disorder?
    F: it is a symptom
  18. Insomnia: what causes sleep latency?
  19. Insomnia: What causes multiple awakenings?
  20. Insomnia: Positive and negative of older Valium drug?
    • Positive: reduce sleep latency, long half-life
    • negative: reduce SWS4 and REM
  21. Insomnia: newer Ambien and Sonata positive and negative side-effects?
    • Positive:sleep enhancer, less REM and SWS4 inhibition
    • Negative:possible addiction or tolerance