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What raphe nuclei produces NE?
what produces 5-HT (Serotonin)?
What produces Dopamine?
functions of raphe nuclei?
- Muscle tone
Nucleus in charge of circadian rhythms / light and dark?
how many nightly sleep cycles and average length?
Two main stages of sleep?
- 1) SWS: 1,2,3,4 with 4 being the deepest
- 2) REM: EEG, EOG active while EMG is not because of muscle paralysis
when does the majority of slow and REM sleep occur, night or morning?
What is the common EEG change in voltage and frequency during sleep?
- start: high frequency, low voltage
- middle: low frequency, high voltage
What specific EEG marks appear in level 2 of slow-wave sleep?
Spindles and K-complex
Slow-wave Adaptive hypothesis?
- high mental capacity = high temperature = more slow wave sleep
- required to repair body & secrete GH
REM sleep ontogeny hypothesis?
- Nervous system growth and development
- * Fetus sleeps 50% of time in REM
REM sleep learning hypothesis?
REM sleep retains information and prepares for learning the next day
- 1) dark = melatonin, hypothalamus stops producing histamine
- 2) Ascending RAS activates Pons cholinergic cells to activate the pre-optic area of hypothalamus
- 3) thalamocortical firing is inhibited
- 4) EEG slows down
- 1) GABAergic neurons turned off = no NE or 5-HT (Serotonin) produced
- 2) cholinergic cells in Pons are turned on
- 3) High Ach release causes EEG, EOG and PGO waves to increase while EMG waves decreases due to paralysis
T/F: insomnia is a disorder?
F: it is a symptom
Insomnia: what causes sleep latency?
Insomnia: What causes multiple awakenings?
Insomnia: Positive and negative of older Valium drug?
- Positive: reduce sleep latency, long half-life
- negative: reduce SWS4 and REM
Insomnia: newer Ambien and Sonata positive and negative side-effects?
- Positive:sleep enhancer, less REM and SWS4 inhibition
- Negative:possible addiction or tolerance