sanitation safeserv

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sanitation safeserv
2011-05-04 21:31:27
Sanitation class

Study for certification for safe serv
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  1. What are the challenges to food safety?
    1. training costs time and money 2. employees may come from diverse backgrounds and speak multiple languages 3. employees may have different levels of education 4. pathogens are being found on once considered safe food 5. food might be received from suppliers that are not practicing food safety 6. number of customers at high risk is increasing7. training new staff leaves less time for food safety training
  2. What is a foodborne illness?
    a disease carried or transmitted to people by food
  3. What is a foodborne illness outbreak?
    an incident in which 2 or more people get the same illness after eating the same food which is proven by blood tests.
  4. costs of a foodborne illness to an establishment
    1. loss of customers and sales 2. loss of reputation 3. negative media exposure 4. lowered employee morale 5. lawsuits and legal fees 6. employee absenteeism 7. increased insurance premiums 8. staff retraining
  5. what must the plaintiff must prove?
    1. food was unfit to be served 2. food caused the plaintiff harm
  6. what is the warranty of sale
    the rules for how the food must be handled
  7. what is the reasonable care defense
    can be used if the establisment has a food safety management plan in place
  8. who are at risk of foodborne illnesses
    1. infants and preschool age children 2. pregnant women 3. elderly 4. HIV/Cancer people with compromised immune systems
  9. elderly people are at risk because
    1. immune systems are weaker 2. stomach acid production decreases 3. sense of taste and smell decline 4. may not get sufficient nutrients5. may have chronic conditions further lowering immune system
  10. three types of contamination hazards
    1. biological 2. physical 3. chemical
  11. CDC top 5 ways food becomes unsafe
    1. purchasing from unsafe sources 2. failing to cook adequately 3. holding at incorrect temperatures 4. using contaminated equipment 5. poor personal hygiene
  12. time-temperature abuse
    food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at temperatures that favor growth of foodborne microorganisms.
  13. ways time temperature abuse can happen
    1. not held or stored at required temperatures 2. not cooked or reheated to temperatures that kill microorganisms 3. not cooled properly
  14. cross-contamination happens when
    1. microorganisms are transferred from one surface or food to another
  15. ways cross-contamination can happen
    1. contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking 2. foodhandler touches contaminated food then ready-to-eat food 3. contaminated food touches, drips onto rte food 4. RTE food touches contaminated surfaces 5. contaminated cleaning towels touch food-contact surfaces
  16. Poor personal hygiene can
    1. offend customers 2. contaminate food or food-contact surfaces 3. cause illness
  17. to prevent foodborne illnesses you should purchase food from?
    approved suppliers
  18. examples of approved suppliers
    1. inspected and meets all applicable local, state, and federal laws 2. shellfish should be purchased from someone on the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List 3. mushrooms picked in the wild should be inspected by experts 4. homemade items should not be purchased
  19. what are the keys to food safety
    1. control time and temperature 2. practice good personal hygiene 3. prevent cross-contamination 4. purchase from approved, reputable suppliers 5. clean and sanitize properly
  20. what is a pathogen
    a microorganism that can cause illness
  21. four types of pathogens
    viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi
  22. what do pathogens need to grow
    FATTOM: food acidity temperature time oxygen moisture
  23. what is acidity
    pH is a measurement of acidity.
  24. What are the best conditions for pathogens to grow?
    They grow best in food that has little to no acid 4.6 to 7.5 pH
  25. what is the temp danger zone?
    41 to 135
  26. How long does it take for food in the danger zone to be bad?
    Four hours.
  27. Oxygen
    some require oxygen to grow, others grow when oxygen is absent. Pathogens that grow without oxygen can occur in cooked rice, untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures, and temperature abused baked potatoes
  28. moisture
    pathogens require moisture to grow: water activity. Measured on a scale of 0.0 to 1.0 with water at 1.0. A water actvity of .85 or higher is ideal for pathogens.
  29. Foods which are most likely to be unsafe
    1. milk and dairy 2. eggs 3. meat 4. poultry 5. fish 6. shellfish and crustaceans 7. baked potatoes 8. heat-treated plant food 9. tofu or other soy 10. synthetic incredients (TVP) 11. sprouts and sprout seeds 12. slicked melons and cut tomatoes13. untreated garlic and oil mixtures
  30. TCS food
    food that needs time and temperature control for safety
  31. what are virus characteristics
    1. can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures 2. cannot grow in food, but can grow in people 3. can contaminate both food and water 4. can be transmitted person to person, person to food, and person to food-contact surfaces
  32. how to prevent virus contamination
    1. wash hands 2. keep foodhandlers with vomiting or diarrhea or jaundice from working 3. minimize bare-hand contact with RTE food
  33. RTE
    ready - to - eat food
  34. major viruses implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. Hepatitis A 2. Norovirus gastroenteritis 3. ecoli
  35. bacteria characteristics
    1. most are controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone 2. most will grow rapidly if FATTOM conditions are right 3. some change into spores to protect themselves 4. some product toxins as they grow and die. Illness can result from eating the toxins. Cooking may not destroy these toxins.
  36. growth stages of bacteria
    1. Lag (adjustment) 2. Log (rapid growth) 3. Stationary (rate of growth and death are equal) 4. Death (rate of death higher than growth)
  37. major bacteria implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. bacillus cereus 2. listeria monocytogenes 3. shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (O157:H7) 4. Clostridium perfringens 5. Clostridium botulinum 6. Salmonella spp. 7. Shigella spp. 8. Staphylococcus aureus9. Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  38. parasite characteristics
    1. cannot grow in food, must be in the meat of another animal to survive 2. can use many animals as hosts 3. can be found in the feces of animals and people 4. can contaminate both food and water
  39. major parasites implicated in foodborne illnesses
    1. anisakis simplex (fish) 2. cryptosporidium parvum (contaminated water) 3. Giardia duodenalis (contaminated water)
  40. fungi
    can cause illness, but mostly spoil food
  41. mold characteristics
    1. spoil food and sometimes cause illness 2. some produce toxins, such as aflatoxins 3. grow under almost any condition 4. cooler/freezer temps slow growth but do not kill
  42. yeast characteristics
    1. can spoil food quickly 2. grow well in acidic food with low water activity
  43. what are biological toxins
    may be produced by pathogens
  44. seafood toxins
    cannot be smelled or tasted
  45. systemic seafood toxins
    created by pufferfish, moray eels, and freshwater minnows
  46. major seafood toxins
    1. Scromboid poisoning caused by Histamine 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning caused by Ciguatoxin 3. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) caused by Saxitoxin 4. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), caused by 5. Amnesiac shellfish poisoning (ASP) caused by Domoic acid
  47. mushroom toxins
    usually caused when toxic mushrooms are mistaken for edible ones
  48. do not use mushrooms unless they have been purchased from approved, reputable suppliers
  49. plant toxins
    usually caused by purchasing from an unapproved source
  50. toxic plants?
    fool's parsley, wild turnips,
  51. What are toxic metals
    • lead: in pewter
    • Copper sometimes in cookware or improperly installed beverage dispensers
    • Zinc from galvanized items
  52. chemical storage guidelines
    1. away from food, utensils, and equipment 2. separate storage area, in original container 3. follow manufacturer's directions 4. be careful using if food is simultaneously being prepared 5. if new container, label with common name 6. only use lubricants approved for food equipment
  53. what are physical contaminants
    • objects in food such as:
    • metal, staples, glass, blades, fingernails, bandages, dirt, bones, jewlery, fruit pits
  54. food allergy
    body's negative reaction to a particular food protein
  55. symptoms of a food allergy
    itching around mouth, face, or scalp tightening in the throat wheezing or shortness of breath hives swelling of face, eyes, hands, feet abdominal cramps, vomiting, diarrhea loss of consciousness death
  56. what should staff do to prevent allergic reactions:
    staff should be knowlegeable, and able to describe dishes, identify ingredients, and suggest simple dishes
  57. how to preventing allergic reactions: in the kitchen?
    prevent cross contact 1. do not use the same oil for frying multiple types of food 2. prevent cross-contact via surface contactn wash, rinse, sanitize wash hands, change gloves assign specific equipment for allergenic foods diseases not transmitted through food
  58. hand washing practices
    1. running water as hot as is comfortable (100 degrees or more) 2. apply soap 3. scrub vigorously for 5 to 10 seconds 4. rinse hands and arms thoroughly under running water 5. dry with a single-use towel or air-dryer
  59. when to wash hands
    before they start work, answering the phone, taking out the garbage, anytime.
  60. hand-maintenance
    fingernails short and clean no false fingernails no nail polish bandage wounds and keep bandages from leaking when to change gloves
  61. proper work attire
    wear a clean hat or other hair restraint wear clean clothing daily remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas remove jewelry
  62. flow of food
    path through a foodservice establishment from purchasing and receiving through storage, preparation, cooking, holding, cooling, reheating and serving
  63. how to prevent physical barriers for preventing cross-contamination
    assign specific equipment for food product types color coded cutting board. Clean and sanitize after each task
  64. clean and sanitize after each task
  65. what are the procedural barriers for preventing cross-contamination
    if using same physical space, prepare raw meat, seafood, and poultry, and RTE food at different times
  66. microorganisms grow fastest
    between 70 and 125 degrees farenheit
  67. how to prevent time and temperature abuse
    • 1. determine best way to monitor
    • have right thermometers
    • regularly record temps and tims
    • incorporate time/temp controls into standard operating procedures, develop corrective actions
  68. what are bimetallic stemmed thermometers
    measures temp through a metal probe with sensor at the end
  69. thermocouples and thermistors
    measure through a metal probe or sensing area and display on a digital readout
  70. time-temperature indicator
    self-adhesive tag
  71. two methods to calibrate thermometers
    boiling method and ice-point method
  72. boiling method of calibration
    1. bring clean tap water to a boil in a deep pan
  73. 2. put thermometer or probe into the water so that the sensor area is completely submerged
  74. 3. hold calibration nut securely and rotate head of thermometer until it reads 212 or the appropriate boiling point temperature for your altitiude
  75. ice-point method of calibration
    1. fill a large container with crushed ice
  76. 2. submerge thermometer until sensor is completely submerged
  77. 3. hold calibration nut securely and rotate head of thermometer utnil it reads 32 degrees F
  78. general thermometer guidelines
    1. keep them and their storage cases clean
  79. 2. calibrate regularly ( daily)
  80. 3. never use glass thermometers
  81. 4. measure internal temperature by inserting thermometer into the thickest part
  82. 5. wait for the reading to steady before recording it
  83. factors in choosing a supplier
    1. approved and reputable
  84. 2. develop a relationship
  85. 3. arrange deliveries so that they arrive one at a time and during off-peak ours
  86. inspection procedures
    1. train employees to inspect deliveries properly
  87. 2. plan ahead for shipments
  88. 3. plan a backup menu
  89. 4. inspect and store each delivery before accepting another
  90. 5. have the right information available
  91. 6. inspect deliveries immediately
  92. 7. correct mistakes immediately
  93. 8. put products away as quickly as possible
  94. 9. keep receiving area clean and well-lit to discourage pests
  95. rejecting shipments
    1. set the rejected product aside
  96. 2. tell delivery person why you are rejecting
  97. 3. get a signed adjustment
  98. 4. log the incident on invoice or receiving document
  99. checking temp of meat, poultry, or fish deliveries
    insert thermometer into thickest part
  100. checking temp of ROP packaging and bulk food
    insert probe in between two packages
  101. checking temperature of non-ROP packaged food
    open package and insert probe into product
  102. checking temperature of live, molluscan shellfish
    air temperature reading in the middle of the case, inbetween the shellfish
  103. checking temperature of eggs
    check air temperature of delivery truck and check temp recorder for extreme fluctuations during transport
  104. criteria for acceptable fish
    bright red gills, bright shiny skin
  105. firm flesh that springs back
  106. mild ocean or seawater smell
  107. bright, clear, and full eyes
  108. product should be surrounded by crushed, self-draining ice
  109. criteria for rejecting fish
    dull grey gills, dull dry skin
  110. soft flesh that leaves an imprint when touched
  111. strong fishy or ammonia smell
  112. cloudy, red-rimmed, or sunken eyes
  113. tumors, abcesses, or cysts on skin
  114. sushi-grade fish must be
    frozen to one of the below prior to shipment:
  115. -4 F or lower for 7 days
  116. -31 F or lower until solid and then at -31F for 15 hours
  117. -31 F or lower until solid then at -4 or lower for 24 hours
  118. sushi-grade fish records
    supplier will provide records showing freezing records. Must keep on file for 90 days after fish is served
  119. shellfish shipping
    must be purchased from suppliers listed in the Interstate Certified Shellfish Shippers List
  120. shucked must be in non-returnable containers
  121. containers smaller than one half gallon must have a best if used by or sell by date
    containers bigger than one half gallon must have the date the shellfish were shucked
  122. live shellfish must be received on ice or at an air temp of 45 F or lower. shucked product must be received at 41 F or lower
  123. must have shellstock identification tags
  124. food safety management system
    a group of procedures and practices intended to prevent foodborne illness
  125. -active managerial control
  126. -HACCP
  127. active managerial control
    focuses on controlling the five most common risk factors for foodborne illness as per the CDC
  128. The FDA food code identifies five ways to control these risks
  129. -demonstration of knowledge
  130. -staff health control
  131. -controlling hands as a means of transmission
  132. -time and temperature parameters
  133. -consumer advisory
  134. active managerial control approach
    1. consider the five risk factors in your establishment
  135. 2. create policies and procedures that address these issues
  136. 3. regularly monitor the policies and procedures
  137. 4. verify that the policies and procedures are actually controlling the risk factors
  138. HACCP
    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
  139. Seven HACCP principles
    1. conduct a hazard analysis
  140. 2. determine critical control points
  141. 3. establish critical limits
  142. 4. establish monitoring procedures
  143. 5. identify corrective actions
  144. 6. verify that it works
  145. 7. establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
  146. when a HACCP plan is required
    1. applying for a variance
  147. 2. smoking food
  148. 3. using food additives for preservation so that TTC is no longer needed
  149. 4. curing food
  150. 5. custom-processing animals
  151. 6. packaging using ROP methods
  152. 7. treating and packaging juice on site for later sale
  153. 8. sprouting seeds or beans
  154. 9. offering live molluscan shellfish from a display tank
  155. crisis plan focuses on
  156. response
  157. recovery
  158. how to prepare for a crisis
    1. assemble an emergency contact list
  159. 2. develop a crisis communication plan
  160. 3. assemble a crisis kit
  161. preparing for foodborne illness
    create a form to collect data if a foodborne illness is reported
  162. 1. when and what the customer ate
  163. 2. when the customer fell ill
  164. 3. what the symptoms were, how long they lasted
  165. 4. when and where the customer sought medical attention, what the diagnosis was, and the treatment received
  166. 5. what other food was eaten by the customer
  167. crisis response
    work with the media
  168. communicate information directly to your key audiences
  169. fix the problem and communicate to media and key audiences what you ahve done
  170. recovering from a foodborne illness outbreak
    work with regulatory authority to resolve issues
  171. clean and sanitize everything
  172. throw out all suspect food
  173. investigate to find the cause
  174. establish new procedures or revise existing ones
  175. develop a plan to reassure customers
  176. power outage
    have a generator
  177. prepare a menu with items that do not need to be cooked
  178. develop a refrigerator policy
  179. make a list of electrical equipment which could be harmed when power is turned back on
  180. have emergency info for utility companies, garbage, ice, etc.
  181. if refrigeration stops
    write down time
  182. check and record food temps periodically
  183. keep doors closed
  184. keep TCS food in ice
  185. throw out food if in danger zone too long
  186. if ventilation hood stops working
    stop all cooking
  187. if hot holding equipment stops working
    write down time
  188. throw out all food held below 135 for more than 4 hours
  189. if water service is interrupted
    prepare a menu which requires little water
  190. keep supply of single-use items
  191. keep supply of bottled water
  192. have a supplier who can supply ice in an emergecy
  193. have emergency contact info for the local regulatory authority, plumber, and water department
  194. develop procedures that minimize water use
  195. develop emergency handwashing procedure
  196. if hands cannot be washed
    implement emergency handwashing procedure
  197. do not touch RTE food with hands
  198. if toilets do not flush
    find other facilities
  199. if not available, stop operations
  200. if drinking water is not available or is contaminated
    use bottled water
  201. get water from an approved source
  202. keep water in a covered, sanitized container during transport
  203. throw out food made with potentially contaminated water
  204. use bottled water for cooking
  205. turn off automatic beverage machines
  206. if ice cannot be made
    stop making it
  207. throw out existing ice
  208. buy ice
  209. if equipment/utensils cannot be sanitized
    use single-use items
  210. use bottled water
  211. when water is restored
    clean and sanitize items with water-line connections
  212. flush water lines
  213. work with your local authority
  214. if a fire occurs
    stop operations if food can no longer be safely prepared
  215. block off affected areas
  216. if a waterline leaks, food/utensils not affected
    keep people away from wet floor
  217. repair the leak
  218. block off the area
  219. if flood damages food, utensils, etc.
    stop all operations
  220. if flood is a result of a sewage backup
    close affected area immediately
  221. correct the problem
  222. clean the area thoroughly
  223. layout of a kitchen
    work flow should minimize the amount of time food spends in the danger zone
  224. good layout will minimize the chance of contamination
  225. ensure that equipment is accessible
  226. allow for easy cleaning
  227. qualities of a handwashing station
    hot and cold running water
  228. soap
  229. means to dry hands
  230. waste container
  231. signage indicating employees are required to wash hands before returning to work
  232. NSF
    NSF International
  233. evaluated, tested, and certified as meeting international commercial food equipment standards
  234. UL
    Underwriters Laboratories
  235. provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF standards
  236. also lists products complying with their own published environemental and publich health (EPH) standards
  237. potable water
    water which is safe for cleaning, cooking, and drinking
  238. cross connection
    a physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or other wastewater sources can enter a potable water supply
  239. backflow
    the unwanted reverse flow of contaminants through a cross connection into the potable water system
  240. vacuum breaker
    one way to prevent backflow
  241. air gap
    an air space used to separate a water supply outlet from any potentially contaminated source
  242. properly designed sinks have two:
  243. faucet to flood rim
  244. sink drain pipe to floor drain
  245. should be twice the diameter of the water supply outlet
  246. types of lightbulbs to use
  247. protective cage
  248. minimium lighting: food preparation areas
    50 foot-candles
  249. minimum lighting: storage and dining rooms
    10 foot-candles
  250. minimum lighting: most areas
    20 foot-candles
  251. garbage containers must be
    leak proof, waterproof, pest proof, easy to clean, and durable
  252. floor-mounted equipment must be X off the floor?
  253. or sealed to masonry base
  254. tabletop equipment should be mounted with how much clearance between equipment and tabletop?
    4" or sealed to the table
  255. cleaning
    the process of removing food and other types of soil from a surface
  256. sanitizing
    the process of reducing the number of microorganisms on that surface to safe levels
  257. steps to cleaning and sanitizing
  258. rinse
  259. sanitize
  260. air-dry
  261. factors in cleaning difficulty
    type of soil
  262. condition of soil
  263. water hardness
  264. water temperature
  265. surface being cleaned
  266. agitation or pressure
  267. length of treatment
  268. 4 categories of cleaners
  269. degreasers
  270. delimers
  271. abrasive cleaners
  272. detergents
    contain surfacants that reduce surface tension between the soil and the surface it is on
  273. degreasers
    dissolve grease
  274. delimers
    used on mineral deposits and other soils that other cleaners cannot remove
  275. abrasive
    scouring agents
  276. heat sanitizing
    water must be 171 degrees F and items must be immersed for 30 seconds
  277. chemical sanitizing
    regulated by state and federal EPAs
  278. can be done by immersion or rinsing, swabbing, spraying the object
  279. factors which influence the effectiveness of sanitizers
    contact time
  280. temperature
  281. water hardness
  282. pH
  283. concentration
  284. wash temperature
    110 F
  285. Rinse temperature
    110 F
  286. sanitizer temperature
    70 to 115 F
  287. soak time for sanitizer
    depends on sanitizing ingredient and water temp.
  288. quats - 75 F and 30 seconds 200ppm
  289. iodine - 75 F and 30 seconds 12.5 - 25 ppm
  290. bleach - 7 seconds at 50 ppm and temp 75 - 100
  291. 10 seconds at 25 ppm and 120 degrees
  292. 10 seconds at 100 ppm and 55 degrees
  293. MSDS
    Material Safety Data Sheet
  294. identifying cleaning needs
    identify all surfaces, tools, equipment, etc that need cleaning
  295. look at how cleaning is done now
  296. estimate time and skills needed to for each task
  297. master cleaning schedule
    what should be cleaned
  298. who should clean it
  299. when it should be cleaned
  300. how it should be cleaned
  301. infestation
    pests in the facility in large numbers
  302. integrated pest management program
  303. uses prevention measures to keep pests from entering the establishment and control measures to eliminate any pests that do get in
  304. pest control officer
  305. licensed
  306. 3 basic rules of an IPM
    deny access to pests
  307. deny pests food, water, and a hiding or nesting place
  308. work with a licensed IPO to eliminate pests that do enter
  309. how to deny access
  310. keep exterior openings closed
  311. install door sweeps and self-closing devices
  312. use air curtains
  313. seal openings around pipes
  314. cover floor drains with hinged grates
  315. seal all cracks in floors and walls
  316. seal spaces where equipment is fitted to the floor
  317. how to deny food and shelter
    dispose of garbage quickly
  318. store recyclables in clean pestproof containers, as far away from your building as allowed
  319. store all food and supplies as quickly as possible
  320. clean thoroughly
  321. cover outdoor garbage
  322. identify pests
    record time, date, location, and specifics of where you spot signs of pests