PHAR CH 20

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leti563
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83809
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PHAR CH 20
Updated:
2011-05-04 19:12:24
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PHAR
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CH 20
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  1. PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS
    AFFECT:
    • Mental processes
    • Emotions,
    • Behavior
  2. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS (CMS) STIMULANTS (3)
    • Caffeine
    • Amphetamine
    • Methylphenidate
  3. CNS AMPHETAMINE (Adderall)
    • Strong stimulant of cerebral cortex
    • Produces brighter spirits and feeling of energy and alertness.
  4. CNS METHYLPHENIDATE (Ritalin)
    Primarily used in ADD/ Enhances focus in children, which decreases hyperactivity.
  5. ANTIDEPRESSANTS (4 TYPES)
    • Tricyclic Antidepressants (Elavil)
    • MonoAmine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    • Heterocyclic Antidepressanrs
  6. ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS (Elavil)
    Increases activity of norepinephrine and serotonin at the synapse.
  7. ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS (MAOI's)
    • An enzyme
    • Breaks down dopamine and norepinephrine
    • Leaves more dopamine and norepinephrine in circulation.
    • Results in some direct amphetamine- like actions.
  8. ANTIDEPRESSANTS (MAOI's)
    • Used when other agents have failed.
    • Significant food interaction- Tyramine

    • Sources of Tyramine:
    • Wine
    • Cheese
    • Aged foods- Salami, Pepperoni

    Drug Interactions: dextromethorphan (OTC meds)

    Causes a hypersensitive crisis High BP, severe headache, palpitations, chest pain and death.
  9. ANTIDEPRESSANTS MAOI's
    DRUG USED TODAY
    phenelzine (Nardil)

    SE's: Constipation, urinary retention
  10. NEUROTRANSMITTERS ASSOCIATED WITH FOOD
    • Serotonin
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
  11. ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    sELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORD (SSRI's)
    First line of treatment for most depression.

    Precautions: Increased risk of suicidal thoughts and actions in teens.

    SE's: Headache, sexual dysfunction.

    • venlafaxine (Effexor)
    • fluoxetine (Prozac)
  12. ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    HETEROCYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
    SECOND GENERATION TRICYCLICS
    • burpropion (Wellbutrin)
    • Useful in smoking cessation

    • trazodone (Desyrel)
    • Useful in agitated depressions (post crystal and meth addiction)
  13. ANTI MANIC AGENTS
    BIPOLAR DISORDERS
    SWITCH FROM UNIPOLAR TO BIPOLAR TRAITS IS NOTED BY THE ONSET OF MANIC EPISODES.

    Mania: Exuberent, hypreemotional, flights of ideas.

    Manic Psychosis: State of irritability and hostility.
  14. ANTIMANIC AGENTS
    lithium (Eskalith)
    • Very effective for bipolar disorders
    • Need 6-8 days for onset of effect.
    • Monitor blood levels to avoid toxicity.

    SE's: tremors, excessive thirst (polydipsia)
  15. ANXIOLYTIC AGENTS
    Effective fr anxiety disorders.
  16. ANXIETY DISORDER
    • A response to and enviromental stressor.
    • Most commin symptom : Fear
  17. ANXIOLYTIC AGENTS
    Bensodiazepines
    • Reduce anxiety without causing sedation.
    • Precautions: DO NOT mix with other CNS epressants (alcohol)
    • High risk of tolerance and dependence- Use short term only.

    • diazepam (Valium)
    • aprazolam (Xanax)
  18. ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS & MAJOR TRANQUILIZERS
    Useful in relieving symptoms of neuroses and psychoses:

    • Delusions
    • Hallucinations
    • Agitation
    • Combativeness
  19. ANTIPSYCHOTICS AND TRANQUILIZERS
    chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
    • Uses: Drug induced psychosis (amphetamine)
    • Manic phase of Bipolar Depression.
  20. ANTIPSYCHOTICS AND TRANQUILIZERS
    olanzapine (Zyprexa)
    Newer genration antipsychotic

    Uses: Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorders.

    SE's: Weight gain, diabetes
  21. ALCOHOLISM
    Leads to liver damage, pancreatitis, vitamin deficiencies (thiamine, floate)

    Fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Acute withdrawal causes delerium tremens :DT's" (approx 48 hrs after stopping)
  22. Alcohol
    ethanol
    • CNs depressant
    • #1 substance abuse problem in the US
    • Rapidly absorbed via the GI tract.
  23. ILLICIT DRUGS
    ADDICTION CONSISTS OF:
    • Tolerance
    • Psychological Dpendence
    • Physical Dependence
    • Withdrawal
  24. ILLICIT DRUGS
    amphetamine (Crystal Meth)
    • Tolerance develops rapidly.
    • Highly addictive
    • Chronic use leads to psychotic symptoms.
    • Risk of cardiac events from extreme chronic use.
  25. ILLICIT DRUGS Marijuana
    • Active ingredient- tetrahydracannabinol. (THC)
    • Potency varies
    • Schedule L
  26. ILLICIT DRUGS
    Cocaine
    • CNS stimulant with euphoric effects
    • Highly addictive-dependence develops rapidly.
    • Inhaled, injected or smoked.

    Pharmaceutical preparation (4%) for local anesthesia.
  27. ILLICIT DRUGS
    Hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
    • Schedule 1
    • Amphetamine like actions with profound hallucinations and distortions of senses.
    • Not for the weak of mins-Psychoses may occur with pre existing anxiety disorders.
    • Treat overdoses with chlorpromazine (Thorazine)

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