Articulation Disorders Final

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Articulation Disorders Final
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2011-05-05 00:52:51
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Articulation Disorders Final
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  1. Stimulus- response, repeating the same thing over and over. 10 good /g/ responses.
    Drill
  2. Stimulus- response, repeating the same thing over and over. 10 good /g/ responses, but with a motivator.
    Drill Play
  3. Training is part of play activities; optional feedback about incorrect responses.
    Structured play
  4. Stimulus and response activities occur as part of play activites (natural), one of the more effective ones we use for younger children.
    Play
  5. Structuring Treatment Sessions:
    • Varibles-Client and stage of treatment
    • Modify treatment to fit the client
  6. ___________ structured treatment is often used in the beginning
    Highly
  7. Move *gradually* from __________ structured to __________ structured in treatment sessions.
    more, less
  8. Final goal of treatment is _____________.
    conversation
  9. In a _______________ trial, you arrange opportunity for the production of a particular behavior.
    discrete
  10. What are the 4 Discrete Treatment Trials?
    • 1. Isolation
    • 2. Syllable
    • 3. Wood, phase, sentence
    • 4. Conversation
  11. __________ _____________ evoke the sound.
    Antecedent stimuli
  12. Instruction, pictures, phonetic placement, visual and verbal prompts, modeling, or a combination of techniques are examples of ____________ _____________.
    antecedent stimuli
  13. What is the steps in treatment trial in isolation?
    • - client is instruced to produce the sound
    • - Clinician models the correct response
    • - Reinforce if response is acceptable or provide corrective feedback
    • - Record accuracy of response
    • - use graphemes unless client is able to understand
  14. What are the phonemes that are difficult to produce without the schwa?
    /r/, /l/, /j/(yah), /w/
  15. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    What is the simplest response level for sounds that cannot be produced in isoloation without a schwa?
    Syllable
  16. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the syllable level you may use a ___________ stimulus.
    visual
  17. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the syllable level, client familar with _______ can use a ________ or other method. (like the snake video observation)
    letter, chart
  18. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At this level you are looking for ____________ level from 80%-90% in at least ___ sessions...maybe even _____ sessions.
    • The level is Word, Phrases, and Sentences
    • the answers to the blanks are accuracy, 2, 3
  19. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At this level you may need to use carrier phrases- "slot fillers" (one hat, one cat, one rat)
    Word, phrases, Sentences
  20. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the word, phrase, sentence level of treatment, you may need to use _____ _______ or ______ ______?
    carrier pharses or slot fillers
  21. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the word, phrase, sentence level: What are the steps to do in treatment?
    • - may use carrier phrases- slot fillers
    • - use a picture to demonstate movement (may use visual phonic here)
    • - Ask a relevant predetermined question - needs to make sense- "functional prompts" for purposes of generalizations it will work better.
    • - Immediately model the correct response
    • - Allow time for a response
    • - Reinforce or provide corrective feedback- at least reward the effort.. "almost there"... good try.
    • - remove the stimulus and wait 2-3 seconds before providing the next- works to enhance the auditory memory.
    • - these are fairly structured.
  22. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At this level, open ended questions are used?
    Conversation
  23. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the conversation level avoid ________ and ______ questions?
    What, do
  24. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the conversation level you have to use a series of questions?
    • False
    • It doesn't have to be an interrogation.
    • Think about how real world works outside of a clinic setting.
  25. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    What is an example of something you could say at the conversation level to elicit a non interrogative conversation?
    I wonder if we'll go outside for recess today... can you tell me why not... how could we help going outside to be fun. Ask them to describe something (for example Dr. Barker has never seen a soccer game) Ask them how their last soccer game went?
  26. When thinking about Discrete Trials:
    At the Conversation level, what are some of the key points to do in treatment?
    • - Use open-ended questions-- that cannot be answered in just one word.
    • - Avoid what and Do questions
    • - do not turn it into an interrogation- doesn't have to be a series of questions.
    • - Listen for natural occurrences- listen for what they say in the waiting room or when coming in with their parents.
    • - Give intermittent verbal praise
    • - Continue to provide corrective feedback- that was a really nice sentence.. I would really like to hear that /s/ sound a little clearer-
    • - Train self-montoring- client can give themselves a token every time they notice they made the sound correctly- actually this should be done before you get to the conversation level.
  27. A sound is __________ only if its production generalizes to __________ words, phases etc.
    mastered, untrained
  28. When thinking of Treatment Sequence:
    What is used to determine gerealizations?
    Probes
  29. __________ assesses accuracy of untrained responses and is used to determine generalization.
    Probes
  30. Probing is particularly crucial at the __________ and _____________ level?
    sentence and conversation level
  31. What are some examples you could use to probe?
    • Using 3 picture cards that they've never seen before.
    • Keep track of the words that have been used before
    • - she would rather us use 10 cards with really good responses than 30 cards with and not get as good of responses.
  32. Some kids have low tolerance for repetition?
    T or F
    True
  33. What are some things that data collection is used for?
    • - accountability
    • - Document performance in Tx
    • - Requirements for documentation have increased- if you don't document it, it didn't happen. (need documentation for fed. gove. or insurance to reimburse.)
    • - Documentation is easier when objective are clearly specified.
  34. Probing for Generalized Responses:
    When moving from responses to pictures to response to the object, checkin to see if they can make distinctions, this is called?
    Untrained Stimulus Items aka physical stimulus generalization.
  35. Probing for Generalized Response:
    If you were probing across word positions, you would be looking at????
    initial, medial, final
  36. Probing for Generalized Response:
    A client that moves from trained response at word level to spontaneous (untrained response) in phrases and sentences, this is called?
    Response Topographies aks intraverbal generalization.
  37. Probing for Generalized Response:
    If you were training within a ________ ________ and you've trained one stop or process you may not need to train another?
    sound class
  38. Probing for Generalized Response:
    manner, place, voice, word position, distinctive features, phonological processes would be probed in _________________.
    • situations
    • bad question, sorry!!
  39. Probing for Generalized Response:
    In Situations if a client has it in onel pair(bilabial) you may not need to train another?
    True or False
    True
  40. Probing for Generalized Response:
    5 things to know about Situations are:
    • -if a client has it in onel pair(bilabial) you may not need to train another?
    • - Distinctive feature may generalize
    • - Individual variations
    • - across sound classes - occurs when a Tx generalized to a sound that does not appear to be phonetically related (trained /m/ and all of a sudden we get a /g/- idea of a consonant sound needing to be at the end)
    • - across situations: generalizes to other physical settings, other people... sometimes just our physical presence in the classroom will be a reminder to use correct sounds.
  41. Probing for Generalized Responses:
    Assessing Gereralization you should:
    • Train /f/ in 10 words, then probe:
    • - untrained words
    • - untrained phonemes, especially a cognate
    • - untrained word position
    • - untrained linguistic level (phrases, sentences)
  42. In Maintenance you need to:
    • - make a selection and manipulation of antecedent stimuli. - have them do things they are really going to need to do (knock on door, sports, crocheting)
    • - Selection of responses- how they need to respond
  43. Maintenance:
    When thinking about selection and manipulation of antecedent stimuli, you should consider:
    • - common stimuli from natural environments
    • - commom verbal antecedents (words used to evoke the target)
    • - vary the audience
    • - vary the physical setting
  44. Maintenance:
    In selection of response you should:
    • - select client- specific objectives (have individual differences in Tx appraoches)
    • - teach multiple exemplars - give them lots of opportunities to respond in a variety of situational contexts
    • - reinforce complex responses
  45. Manipulation of Tx Contingencies:
    You should move from ____________ to ______________ reinforcement.
    • continuous, intermittent
    • because it's more successful when thinking about transferring into the real world
  46. Manipulation of Tx Contingencies:
    You should use __________ or ____________ ____________ reinforcers?
    conditioned or naturally occurring
  47. Manipulation of Tx Contingencies:
    Things you should know about this:
    • - move from continuous to intermittent reinforcement
    • - use conditioned or natually occurring reinforcers
    • - delay reinforcement - no one is going to tell them good job in everyday life.
    • - train parents and caregivers - generally, don't instruct them on correct speech
    • - Reinforce generalized responses
    • - Teach self monitoring and self correcting
    • - Teach contingency priming ( actively seek reinforcement from others)
  48. Manipulation of Tx Contingencies:
    When you train parents and caregivers, you instruct them on correct speech?
    True or False
    • False
    • instruct them in general, but not in correct speech.
  49. Self monitoring and self correcting is a should not be reinforced?
    True or False
    • False
    • It should be reinforced- it is a good thing to reinforce
  50. Working with Family and Others consider what?
    another bad question, but oh well.
    • -Peer tutor- need to be trained
    • - Classroom teachers - play a significant role in maintenance
    • - parents and others- skills and interest may vary.
  51. When do you dismiss a client?
    • - after a certain period of time (may be required by third party)
    • - Ideally, client hs achieved the goals
    • - Plateau of skills - they might not be doing what we ask or even want to
    • - Poor motivation
    • - Under ideal circumstances do a follow-up assessment
  52. Phonological/Phonemic Awarenss:
    Assessment consists of 7 things.
    • 1. rhyming
    • 2. Alliteration
    • 3. Phoneme Isolation
    • 4. Phoneme Manipulation
    • 5. Sound and Syllable blending
    • 6. Syllable and sound identification
    • 7. Sound Segmetation
  53. When dealing with phonological/Phonemic Awareness, in treatment you should use activities.............
    designed to promote develpment of phonological awareness skills.
  54. In treatment of Phonological/Phonemic Awareness:
    • -Articulation Tx steps can be adaptd to Tx of phonological awarenss
    • -Reinforcement prodecures apply
    • - Move from simple to complex
    • -Train phonological awarenss to address literacy issues because it is so directly correlated to academic success.
  55. Organic and Neurogenic Speech Disorders:
    A motor programming disorder characterized by difficulty executing volitional(purposeful) movements, in the absence of muscular weakness, paralysis or incoordination.
    Apraxia
  56. Non speech movements like licking an ice cream cone
    Oral apraxia
  57. Difficulty moving arms and legs?
    Limb Apraxia
  58. inability to program and excute voilitional movements for production of phonemes and words.
    Apraxia of speech or verbal apraxia
  59. Apraxia's can occur together or separately?
    True or False
    True
  60. Speech Apraxia is the ______ common, where as ___________ apraxia is the __________ common.
    most, limb, least
  61. Causes of Apraxia are: (7things)
    • Neurological damage - in the dominate hemisphere for speech, usually Broca's area, most common - single left hemisphere stoke.
    • Degenerative diseases
    • TBI
    • Surgical trauma - neurosurgery
    • Tumors
    • Seizure disorder
    • Undetermined
  62. What is the most common type of neurological damage when talking about etiologies of apraxia.
    singe left hemisphere stoke
  63. Characteristics of Apraxia
    • - awarness of the problems - frustration - saying no when they actually mean yes, they know they are not saying what they mean.
    • - Impaired volitional sequencing
    • - Better automatic speech - (ex in class, telling them to say telephone, and they can't, but then they say I can't say the word telephone, and they said it.
    • - Variable errors- if you ask them to repeat a word 3 times it comes out differently everytime.
    • - Reduced rate of speech- may use compensatory behavior- they can move their articulators they just can't sequence them.
    • -
  64. Articulation errors in Apraxia
    • Substitutions, Omissions, Distortions
    • Fricative and affricates
    • consonant cluster errors
    • Anticipatory substitutions
    • Regressive substiutions - they have already said the sound and they say it the same way again.
    • Metathetic errors - switching two sounds that go together
    • Increased error with increased complexity
    • Delayed initiation - have trouble even starting to speak
    • Trial and error - groping or searching- stumbling around because they know they didn't say the word correclty
    • Initial sound position errors- likely beause they have trouble with initiation
    • False starts and attempts at self correction
    • Occasional difficulty with imitation - Tx best used in a finctional disorder not organic.
  65. Prosodic Problems with Apraxia
    • Reduced rate of Speech
    • Pauses between words - they are giving themselves time to formulate
    • Increased duration of syllables - especially the medial vowels
    • Monotone stress and speech quality- flat, monotone, syllable stress absent
    • Restricted range and intensity of pitch
    • Repetitions like stuttering
    • May sound like they are speaking with a foreign accent.
  66. these kids stand out, highly unintelligible, inconsitency and searching behaviors?
    Childhood Apraxia of speech
  67. Childhood Apraxia of Speech have no know etiology?
    True or False
    True
  68. For people that don't believe it exists, they believe it to be a severe phonological process disorder?
    True or False
    True
  69. What is the descriptive diagnostic label would be worded how, when talking about Childhood Apraxia?
    Johnny presents characteristics not unlike childhood apraxia of speech.
  70. What are the characteristics of Childhood Apraxia?
    • - moderate to severe intelligiblity problems
    • inconsistent sound errors
    • Unusual errors- that don't seem to follow a pattern and aren't typicaly seen.
    • - Additions, prolongations, repetitions - so its like a fluency disorder
    • - Primarily omissions and substitutions errors
    • - Vowel errors- why they sound like they are speaking a different language.
    • - Resonance difficulties
    • - Aprosody (flat prosody), dysprodsody (inappropriate pitch variations)
  71. Flat prosody is called
    Aprosody
  72. Inappropriate pitch varations is called
    Dysprosody
  73. Childhhood Apraxia
    Sound and syllable sequencing problems consists of:
    • - difficulty with sequencing, even when phonemes are known
    • - multisyllabic words
    • - diadochokinesis sequencing
    • - errors increase with word complexity and length
    • - metathetic errors (sound reversals)
  74. Childhood Apraxia
    Groping behaviors and silent posturing consists of
    • -Lip positioning with no sound
    • -Searching articulators move to attempt productions
    • - notable in diadochokinetic taskes
    • -Slow progress
    • - Neurological soft signs.
    • - Presence of oral apraxia (can't lick a lollipop)
    • - Oral astereognosis- decreased oral awareness- they don't know what their articulators are doing.
  75. Childhood Apraxia
    Assessement Objectives:
    • - assess across tasks and situations
    • - assess other aspects and skills of communication
    • - oral motor skills in speech and non speech tasks
    • - describe nature and severity - judgment call
    • - distinguish from other speech disorders -
    • - treatment targets
    • - prognosis - reasonable statement of prognosis
    • - Strengths - talk about things they do well - even if its energy level- always find something.
  76. Childhood Apraxia Techniques:
    Assessment Techniques
    • -Non-imitative speech production
    • - imitative speech production
    • - consistency and varibility of errors
    • - diadochokinetic syllabe rates
    • - intelligibility - overall with and without context
    • - Prosody- are they able to make changes (can they do a big deep voice like goldilocks)
    • - Fluency and disfluency- ability to produce words accutately without multiple substitutions, false starts.
  77. A neuromotor speech disorder affecting one, various or all parameters of speech productions. A group of motor speech disorders resulting from neurological damage.
    Dysarthria
  78. What does Dysarthria effect?
    Respiratory and Phonatory
  79. What are two sources of Phonation called?
    diplophonia
  80. What is it called when a person cannot control their intensity?
    Monoloudness
  81. What are the lesion sites in Dysarhria?
    • lower motor neuron
    • Upper motor neuron
    • Cerebellar
    • Extrapyramidal (basil ganglia)
  82. What will your respiration be like with Dysarthria?
    breathy, forced
  83. What types of problems will you have with Dysarthria in terms of resonance?
    Hyper, Hypo, nasal emission
  84. What types of Articulation problems will you have with Dysarthria?
    Distortions, prolongations, weak pressure consonants
  85. How will your prosody be effected with Dysarthria?
    slow or rapid rate, syllable stress
  86. What is another problem you may have with Dysarthria?
    (palilalia) repetition with increased rate and decreased loudness.
  87. What are the global signs of Dysarthria?
    Decreased intelligibility, bizarre speech
  88. What are the different types of Dysarthria?
    • Falccid - bulbar palsy
    • Spastic -pseudobulbar palsy
    • Ataxic- cerebellar (lack of coordination)
    • Hypokinetic - Prakinsons (basal ganglia/extrapyramidal)
    • Hyperkinetic - (basal ganglia/extrapyramidal)
    • Mixed
    • Unilateral upper motor neuron- one side
  89. What is the process you do when your are assessing a client with Dysarthria?
    • - Determine type of dysarthria
    • - Evaluate articulation, respiration, phonation, prosody
    • - Describe the nature and severity
    • - Treatment targets
    • - Prognosis
    • - Include their strengths.
  90. What are the things to look at when doing the assessment of Dysarthria?
    • Connected speech
    • speech production mechanism - oral peripheral exam
    • Diadochokinetic syllable rates- how rapidly can they alternate between them.
    • - Respiratory - can they use the right breathing when producing speech
    • - Phonatory - is it breathy or clear, and the intensity
    • - Resonance- are they nasal, hyponasal, can they switch back and forth
    • - Articulation - mainly distortions, some prolongations
    • - Prosody - rate, rhythm, syllable stress etc.
  91. A non-progressive (although it may appear so), neuromotor disorder resulting from brain damage before, during or shortly after birth.
    Cerebral Palsy
  92. meaning before birth
    prenatal (congenital)
  93. Meaning during birth?
    Perinatal
  94. Meaning after Birth?
    Postnatal
  95. What is the cause (etiology) of Cerebral Palsy?
    • cause unknown if 40% of cases
    • - Prenatal- multiple causes
    • - perinatal- complications during delivery
    • - Postnatal - prematurity, head trauma, inflammatory diseases, blood toxicity.
  96. What are the categories of Cerebral Palsy?
    • Quadriplegia
    • Dipelgia
    • Paraplegia
    • Hemiplegia
    • Mononplegia
  97. Cerebral Palsy- affecting the trunk and all extremities is called?
    quadriplegia
  98. Cerebral Palsy- affecting the corresponding extemities on both sides is called?
    Diplegia
  99. Cerebral Palsy affecting the lower trunk and lower extremities is called?
    paraplegia
  100. Cerebral Palsy affecting one side is called?
    hemiplegia
  101. Cerebral Palsy affecting a single extremity is called?
    Monoplegia
  102. What are the different TYPES of Cerebral Palsy?
    • Spastic
    • Athetoid
    • Ataxic
    • Rigid
    • Mixed
  103. A type of Cerebral Palsy that is most common, and has increased muscle tone and jerky movements?
    Spastic
  104. A type of Cerebral Palsy that effect writing and involuntary movements?
    Athetoid
  105. A type of Cerebral Palsy that shows balance problems?
    Ataxic
  106. A type of Cerebral Palsy causing simultaneous contraction of all muscle groups?
    Rigid
  107. A type of Cerebral Palsy that has a combination of any of the other types?
    mixed
  108. The most common type of mixed Cerebral Palsy is ?
    Spastic and Athetoid
  109. Characteristics in Cerebral Palsy in reference to articulation?
    Worse with athetoid, imprecise articulation, omissions, slurring, more difficulty in final position, single words are better.
  110. Articualtion is worse with what type of Cerebral palsy?
    Athetoid
  111. Characteristics in Cerebral Palsy in reference to phonatory?
    weak, poor control, pitch and quality difficulties, breathiness
  112. Characteristics in Cerebral Palsy in reference to Respiratory?
    Rapid, excessive diaphragm movements, air wastage
  113. Characteristics in Cerebral Palsy in reference to Prosodic?
    Monotone, monoloud, general dysprosody
  114. Associated characteristics in Cerebral Palsy?
    jerky jaw movement, incoordinated tongue movements
  115. Assessment of Cerebral Palsy is __________ and we look at the ........
    multidisciplinary, physiological structures, strengths, follow up, potential for alternative/augmentative communication.
  116. When assessing a client with Cerebral Palsy you need to look at this? (9 things)
    • Neuromotor function- how muscles respond
    • Motor development - how things progress
    • Mental development
    • Speech disorders and intelligibility
    • Prosody
    • Voice and respiratory problems
    • Resonsance
    • Oromotor function
    • Agumentative and alternative communication - requires a certain level of cognitive ability
  117. When does a cleft lip and palate occur?
    during embryonic development
  118. When does lip closure occur?
    during the 5th-6th week of gestation
  119. When does hard and soft palate fusion occur?
    during the 8th- 9th week of gestation
  120. Who has the highest incidence of cleft lip and palate?
    Native Americans
  121. What are the causes of cleft palate and lip?
    • Multifactorial
    • genetic, environmental, toxic, embryonic factors
  122. What are some other problems that a person might have with a cleft palate?
    ear infections, hearing loss, mental retardation, velopharyngeal incompetence.
  123. Severity of articulation disorder in a person with a cleft palate follows a continuum?
    True or False
    • True
    • *whatever that means*
  124. What Articulation and Phonology problems would you be looking at in reference to a Cleft palate or Lip?
    • -Intraoral pressure
    • -Velopharyngeal inadequacy
    • -Compensatory errors (glottal stops)
    • -Laryngeal pathologies and phonatory disorders- vocal nodules, hoarse, soft, monotone
    • - resonance disorders- hyper, hypo, denasal
    • - associated problems- ear infection, hearing loss, VPI inaccuracy
  125. Cleft palate:
    In Assessment
    • - multidisciplinary
    • - presence of other disorders
    • - Periodic assessement
    • - Treatment targets
    • - Strenghts and intact skills
  126. Cleft Palate:
    In Assessment look at
    • -Connected Speech
    • - Speech mechanism-
    • - in articulation and phonology - look for compensatory strategies
    • - Phonation
    • -Resonance
  127. What are the causes and nature of Hearing impairment? (3things)
    • Physchogenic
    • Conductive
    • Sensorineural
  128. What is the inabiltiy to hear but no actual reason for it?
    psychogenic
  129. Interuption of sound to the cochlea is called ?
    conductive
  130. Cochlea hair cells or fibers of acoustic nerve (CNVIII) damaged.
    sensorineural
  131. Loss associated with age is called?
    presbysusis
  132. A sensorineural loss and a conductive loss is called?
    mixed hearing loss
  133. Factor of hearing impairment are
    • Degree - in the better ear for the most part
    • Age- born with? What age was the loss?
    • Type and quality of intervention
    • Support systems- access to medical facilities/treatment- access to audiology services , hearing aids etc
    • Other difficulties
  134. What kind of Articulation problems are associated with hearing impairment?
    omissions, substitutions and distortions, includeing vowels, additions, breathiness
  135. What kind of Voice and Resonance problems are assoicated with hearing impairment?
    • more pronounced in the deaf
    • pitch, resonance difficulties, breathiness, infections.
  136. What kind of Prosody problems are assoicated with hearing impairment?
    • limited
    • dysfluencies
    • abnormal, flow, rhythm, inflections, slow rate
  137. What are the other problems associated with hearing impairment?
    language and literacy
  138. Assessment of a hearing impaired person includes
    • - intelligibility across situation
    • - other communication skills
    • - voice, resonance and prosody
    • - estimate severity and prognosis
    • - strengths and intact skills
  139. When dealing with Hearing Impairment you should find out if they lost their hearing prelingual or poslingual, this means what?
    before or after they developed language.
  140. What is their Auditory perception in a person with hearing impairment, means what?
    what their hearing ability is , how much residual hearing do they have, and can they discriminate at all.
  141. How is their speech production mechanism with a hearing impairment person, means what?
    some tend to have a high palate
  142. When thinking about connected speech in a person with a hearin impairment, means what?
    how is their intelligibility
  143. The five things you should look at when assessing a person with a hearing impairment?
    • Prelingual or postlingual
    • Auditory perception or speech discrimination
    • Speech production mechanism
    • Connected Speech
    • Voice and Resonance
  144. With hearing impairment it is important to
    • -begin early with multidisciplinary team
    • -family involvement
    • -visual, tactile kinesthetic cues- some HI people do not like their faces touched
    • -stops, frictives, affricates - difficult
    • -voiced/voiceless distinctions
    • -initial and final consonant omission
    • -problems with vowels
    • -vocal quality - may be hyper or hyponasal
  145. What are the treatment principles of Childhood Apraxia of Speech?
    • - movement patterns and sound sequences
    • - early developing, visible, highly contrasted, easily distinguishable
    • - meaningful
    • - intital position, in order of phonetic complexity
    • - breaks
    • - slower movements
    • - automatic before spontaneous
  146. What are the specific treatment approaches?
    • Prompt- prompts for restructuring oral muscular phonetic targets
    • - Progressive assimilation- successive approximation or shaping
    • - Phonetic placement
    • - Contrastive stress drills
  147. Medical intervention that can be done with children with Dysarthria?
    • -Laryngeoplasty
    • -Spasmodic dysphonia
    • -Palatal lift
  148. A paralyzed vocal fold is moved with implants to promote phonation and better voice quality this is called?
    Larynegeoplasty, may also have teflon/collagen injections. - recurrent laryngeal nerve resection.
  149. What is Treated with Botox injections?
    Spasmodic dysphonia
  150. A procedure that attaches to the teeth with a posterior portion extending to lift the soft palate to improve resonance?
    Palatal lift
  151. Treatment Principles for Dysarthria in children include:
    • - Appropriate prosody- (pacing board, DAF- delayed auditory feedback)
    • - Improve intelligibility- slower rate, exaggerated articulation
    • - Non- verbal communication- depends on severity
    • - Compensatory Movements
    • - Exercises - fairly controversial, no evidence that they really work
    • - Work with family- make sure the family knows how to understand the signing etc.
    • - Other issues - Language, Pragmatics, Social skills etc.
  152. Treatment for Cerebral Palsy needs to be
    • - Multidisciplinary
    • -Beginning in infancy
    • - Some may have normal articulation
    • - Adapt procedures used for dysarthria
    • - Assess compensatory postures of abnormal reflexes
  153. Treatment for Cerebral Palsy include:
    • - Muscle strengthening (dealing with small children), assistive devices
    • - Direct treatment- phonetic placement- where do the articulators go to produce the sound
    • - Increasing the speed of articulatory movement
    • - Respiratory- sustaining airflow- quick inhalation, slow exhalation
    • - Prosody- (as in dysarthria)
    • - Augmentative communication
  154. A secondary procedure for hypernasality - flap is cut from pharyngeal wall and attached to the velum
    Pharyngeal flap surgery
  155. A procedure to close opening after surgery, if unrepaird affects speech and eating- dental problems
    Fistulae repair
  156. - for hypernasality. Palatal retainer and pharyngeal extension. Helps with velopharyngeal closure?
    Speech Bulb
  157. Treatment Principles for Cleft Palate include
    • - Visible sounds
    • - Vowels, semivowels, nasals, glides, fricative, lingual - palatals, lingua- alveolars, linguadentals
    • - Postpone /k/ and /g/
    • - Strenghten Velum
    • - Correct airflow
    • - Reduce facial grimace
    • - Compensatory articulation
  158. Treatment of Resonance with Cleft Palate should reduce _______________.
    hypernasality
  159. Treatment of Cleft Palate shoud help with ___________ __________ behaviors.
    vocally abusive

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