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Harvestingtwice a year from the same land -Can cause agricultural exhaustion making people move away from the land
activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary):
- activity (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, quinary):
Primary: Involves jobs like lumber and mining
- Secondary: Manufacturing
- products and assembling raw materials
- The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication and utilities
- All of these jobs are necessary in the world
subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism):
- subsistence agriculture (shifting cultivation, nomadic herding/pastoralism):
- Shifting Cultivation: Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple
- years then left fallow for a relatively long time.
Nomadic herding/pastorilism:Based on herding domesticated animals
- - Effect the way that some in the world to
- live and were they fall in demographic transition
Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals.-This allowed for future generations to grow larger because they no longer wejust a hunter gatherer society
Food Chain –
A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallestbeing fed upon by a larger one, whichin turn feeds a still larger one, etc.
Green Revolution –
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially newhigh-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agriculturalproductivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population.
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture –
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmersmust expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasiblyyield from a parcel of land. Popular in East, South, and SoutheastAsia,
– Tillage between rows of crops of plants.
– Natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animalor plant sources.
–Economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about theproduction and allocation of goods and services. Commonly used in which stateor government controls the factors of production and makes all decisions abouttheir use and about the distribution of income. Example: Economy of the SovietUnion, in the 80’s and 90’s government presiding over planned economies beganderegulating and moving toward market basted economies by introducing marketforces to determine pricing, distribution, and production. Today most economiesare market or mixed economies, except those in Cubaor North Korea.
Rural Settlement –
Sparsely settled placesaway from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, orin other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with aneconomy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism.
- -Dispersed –Characterized by farmers
- living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other
- farmers in the area.
- – a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields
- surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings.
- Material – houses and buildings are typically built from materials that are
- abundant in the area.
Sauer, Carl O.
defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a culturalgroup. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion;economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features suchas climate and vegetation. “Culture is the agent, the natural area is themedium, the cultural landscape is the result.”
Second Agricultural Revolution –
Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19thcentury, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allowlabor to work in factories. Started in UnitedKingdom, Netherlands,and Denmark,
Third level of cities (behind World Cities, and Command and Control Centers),offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services. Typically specializein management, research and development of a specific industry (motor vehiclesin Detroit), or are centers of government andeducation, notably state capitals that also have a major university (Albany, Lansing, Madison,or Raleigh-Durham).
Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grains produced world wide,accounting for 87% of all grains and 43% of all food. Maize staple food ofNorth America, South American, Africa, andlivestock worldwide, wheat is primary in temperate regions, and rice intropical regions.
–Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and driveto the country to care for their crops and livestock. This practice lendsitself well to the growth of wheat. Allows families to continue their longrelationships with the ancestral farm, but still enjoy the benefits of wagedincomes in urban environments.
Survey Patterns –
-Long Lots (French) –
-Metes and Bounds (English) –
Township-and-Range (U.S.A) –
Survey Patterns –
- -Long Lots (French) – Houses erected on
- narrow lots perpendicular along a river, so that each original settler had equal river access.
- -Metes and Bounds (English) – Uses physical
- features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define
- the boundaries of a particular piece of land. Metes refers to boundary defined
- by a measurement of a straight run, bounds refers to a more general boundary,
- such as a waterway, wall, public road, or existing building.
- Township-and-Range (U.S.A) – Survey’s used
- west of Ohio, after the purchase of the Louisiana Purchase. Land is divided into six-mile square
- blocks (township), which is then divided into one-mile square blocks (range).
- Ranges were then broken into smaller parcels to be sold or given to people to
Third Agricultural Revolution –
‘Green Revolution’ Rapid diffusion of newagricultural techniques between 1970’s and 1980’s, especially new high-yieldseeds and fertilizers. Has caused agricultural productivity at a global scaleto increase faster than population growth.
Chemical Farming –
Increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
Food Manufacturing –
the Green Revolution has increased production to avoid widespread famine.Allowing the world population to grow about four billion since stared, alsoallowing populations in developing nations to consume 25% more than before.
–pastoral practice of seasonalmigration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas.
Truck Farm –
Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a MiddleEnglish word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. Predominant inSoutheastern U.S.A, because of the long growing season and humid climate,accessibility to large markets of New York,Philadelphian, and Washington.Truck farms grow many of the fruits and vegetables that consumers demand indeveloped societies. Truck farms sell some of their product to fresh markets,but mostly to large processors for canning or freezing. Truck farms are highlyefficient and large-scale operations that take full advantage of machines atevery stage of the growing process.
Von Thunen, Johann Heinrich –
1826, NorthernGermany. When choosing an enterprise, acommercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost oftransporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for morethan the land cost, distance of land to market is critical because the cost oftransporting varies by crop. Also found that specific crops were grown in varyingrings around city. Market-oriented gardens and milk producers in first ring,because of expense of transportation and perishability. In the next rings woodlots used for construction and fuel, because it is a heavy industry with hightransportation costs. Next rings are used for various crops or pasture, withthe outermost ring devoted to animal grazing. Von Thunen’s theory disregardssite or human factors.