Psychology ch 13 & 14

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AnnaIsCool
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83843
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Psychology ch 13 & 14
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2011-05-15 17:03:13
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psychology
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Psychological Testing & Personality Theories
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  1. reliability
    the ability of a test to give the same results under similar conditions
  2. validity
    the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
  3. percentile system
    ranking of test scores that indicates the ratio of test scores that indicates the ratio of scores lower and higher than a given score
  4. norms
    standard of compariso for test results developed by giving the test to large, well-defined groups of people
  5. intelligence
    the ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior, and to adapt to new situations
  6. two-factor theory
    proposes that a person's intelligence is composed of a general ability level and specific mental abilities
  7. triarchic theory
    proposes that a person's intelligence involves analytical, creative, and practical thinking skills
  8. emotional intelligence
    interpersonal and intrapersonal abilitlies needed to use knowledge of emotionsn effectively
  9. intelligence quotient
    standardized measure of intelligence based on a scale in which 100 is average
  10. heritability
    the degree to which a characteristic is related to inherited genetic factors
  11. cultural bias
    an aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording used in questions may be more familiar to people of one social group to another group
  12. aptitude test
    estimates the probability that a person will be successful in learning a specific new skill
  13. achievement test
    measures how much a person has learned in a given subject or area
  14. interest inventory
    measures a person's preferences and attitudes in a wide variety of activities to identify areas of likely success
  15. personality test
    assesses an individual's characteristics and identifies problems
  16. objective test
    a limited or forced-choice test in which a a person must select one of several answers
  17. projective test
    an unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli
  18. personaltiy
    the consistent, enduring, and unique characteristics of a person
  19. unconscious
    the part of the mind that contains material of which we are unaware but that strongly influences conscious processes and behaviors
  20. id
    the part of the unconscious personality that contains our needs, drives, instincts, and repressed material
  21. ego
    the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways
  22. superego
    the part of the personality that is the source of conscience and couteracts the socially undesireable impulses of the id
  23. defense mechanisms
    certain specific means by which the ego unconsciously protects itself against unpleasant impulses or circumstances
  24. collective unconscious
    the part of the mind that contains inherited instincts, urges, and memories common to all people
  25. archetype
    an inherited idea, based on the experience of one's ancestors, which shapes one's perception of the world
  26. inferoirity complex
    a pattern of avoiding feelings of inadequacy rather than trying to overcome their source
  27. behaviorism
    belief that the proper subject matter of psychology is objectively observable behavior- and nothing else
  28. contingencies of reinforcement
    the occurence of rewards or punishments following particular behaviors
  29. humanistic psychology
    a school of psychology that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of maximum potential by each unique individual
  30. self-actualization
    the humanist term for realizing one's unique potential
  31. self
    one's experience or image of oneself, developed through interaction with others
  32. positive regard
    viewing oneself in a favorable light due to supportive feedback recieved from interaction with others
  33. conditions of worth
    the conditions a person must meet in order to regard themself positively
  34. unconditional psitive regard
    the perception that individuals' significant others value them for what they are, which leads the individuals to grant themselves the same favorable opinion or view
  35. fully functioning
    an individual whose person and self coincide
  36. trait
    a tendancy to react to a situation in a way that remains stable over time
  37. cardinal trait
    a characteristic or feature that is so pervasive the person is almost identified with it
  38. factor analysis
    a complex statistical technique used to identify the underlying reasons variables are correlated
  39. surface trait
    a stable characteristic that can be observed in certain situations
  40. source trait
    a stable characteristic that can be considered to be at the core of personality
  41. extravert
    an outgoing, active person who directs his or her energies and interests toward other people and things
  42. introvert
    a reserved, withdrawn person who is preoccupied on their own thoughts and feelings

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