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__?__ are the four overall steps of viral cellular entry.
- 1. Virion binds specific receptor on cell surface.
- 2. Virion enters in specialized vesicle or direct penetration of plasma membrane.
- 3. Virion or nucleocapsid are transported within cell to site of trx and rep. (cytoplasm or nucleus)
- 4. Viral genomes are released into cell through vesicle membrane or disintefration of capsid.
Virion __?__ mediates membrane penetration.
Virion conformational changes for cellular entry are triggered by __?__ or __?__.
- Viral surface proteins with cellular receptors in the membrane; or
- Exposure to low pH inside the endosome.
Enveloped viruses enter through __?__ with either the __?__ or __?__.
- Membrane fusion
- The plasma membrane; or
- intracellular vessicle membrane
Non-enveloped viruses enter the cytosol by __?__ or __?__.
- Transmembrane channel (capsid or just genome fit through); or
- inducing lysis of the endocytic vessicle
__?__ are the 5 entry methods via fusion and there destinations.
Macropinocytosis (rac-rho), Non-clathrin/caveolae endocytosis, Clathrin mediated cytosis - all go to endosome, and caveolae - goes to ER
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