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__?__ are the four overall steps of viral cellular entry.
1. Virion binds
receptor on cell surface.
2. Virion enters in specialized vesicle or direct penetration of plasma membrane.
3. Virion or nucleocapsid are transported within cell to site of trx and rep. (cytoplasm or nucleus)
4. Viral genomes are released into cell through vesicle membrane or disintefration of capsid.
Virion __?__ mediates membrane penetration.
Virion conformational changes for cellular entry are triggered by __?__ or __?__.
Viral surface proteins with cellular receptors in the membrane; or
Exposure to low pH inside the endosome.
Enveloped viruses enter through __?__ with either the __?__ or __?__.
The plasma membrane; or
intracellular vessicle membrane
Non-enveloped viruses enter the cytosol by __?__ or __?__.
Transmembrane channel (capsid or just genome fit through); or
inducing lysis of the endocytic vessicle
__?__ are the 5 entry methods via fusion and there destinations.
Macropinocytosis (rac-rho), Non-clathrin/caveolae endocytosis, Clathrin mediated cytosis -
all go to endosome
, and caveolae -
goes to ER