Psych Chpt 9

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mking_nu
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83853
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Psych Chpt 9
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2011-05-04 21:56:27
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Psych
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Exam 2, Motivation and Emotion
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  1. factors that energize, direct or sustain behavior
    they are energizing, directive and help people persist in behviors
    they differ in strength
    motivation
  2. motivation to perform an activity because of external goals toward which the activity is directed
    extrinsic motivation
  3. motivation to perform an activity because of the value of pleasure associated wiht that activity, rather than on an apparant external goal or purpose
    intrinsic motivation
  4. the tendency to generate ideas of alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communicating and entertainnig others
    creativity
  5. Theory of Bem
    People are seldom aware of their specifi motives and instead draw inferences about their motives according to what seems to make the most sense
    Self-perception Theory
  6. a motivation state aroused when our feelings of personal freedom are threatened
    -react by trying to regain freedom
    -reverse psychology based on this theory
    psychological reactance
  7. what determines how we eat
    • hunger/satiety
    • culture
    • biology
  8. phenomenom when animals will stop eating relatively quickly if only one type of food to eat, eat more if presented with variety
    sensory-specific satiety
  9. part of brain that assesses food's reward value
    -it has decreased activity when only 1 food eaten
    frontal lobe
  10. fear of new things
    -unfamiliar foods may be dangerous
    neophobia
  11. local norms for what to eat and how to prepare it
    cuisine
  12. the most influential part of the brain on eating
    hypothalamus
  13. a condition of eating great quantities
    hyperphagia
  14. part of hypothalamus- when damaged can lead to obesity (in rats)
    Ventromedial Hypothallamus (VMH)
  15. part of hypothallamus tied with aphagia, weight loss.
    Must be force fed to stay alive
    lateral hypothallamus
  16. diminished eating behavior
    aphagia
  17. part of brain associated with taste cues (ex: bitter, sweet)
    responsible for the reward value of food
    prefrontal lobe
  18. system in prefrontal involved in reward, craving triggered by seeing food
    overweight people have this system activated more when they see food
    limbic system
  19. syndrome of obsession with fine food and food preparation
    -centered on the reward of food, so not all suffers become obese
    gourmand syndrome
  20. an explanation for hunger
    the bloodstream is monitored for glucose levels (fuel for metabolism and neural activity)
    glucostatic theory
  21. explanation for hunger
    a set point for body fat in which deviations from the set point initiate compenstory behaviors to return to homeostasis
    lipostatic theory
  22. hormone involved in fat regulation
    released from fat cells when fat is stored--> goes to hypothallamus and inhibits eating behavior
    none=obesity
    leptin
  23. hormone
    it surges in the stomach before mealtime and decreases after eating
    ghrelin
  24. feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physciological processes and cognitive beliefs
    brief responses to specific events-->trigger change in behavior
    emotion
  25. long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behavior
    does not have a percipitating trigger
    mood
  26. age that a child can express joy, pain, disgust, interest
    BIRTH
  27. age at which a child can show anger and sadness
    2 months
  28. age at which a child can express fear
    6 months
  29. age at which can express empathy
    but it is ego-centric
    2
  30. rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable in given situations
    display rules
  31. show social emotions (embarassment, guilt, etc)
    tested by mirror test
    at what age?
    • self-awareness
    • 12 months
  32. holding onto previous ideas even when presented with contradicting evidence
    • belief persistence
    • "my side bias"
  33. people use their current mood states to make judgements and appraisals, even if they do not know the source of their moods
    -when aware of what is causing mood, it does not affect appraisal
    affect-as-information theory
  34. bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an aciton's consequences
    *guide us in adaptive behaviors
    damage to this lobe hinders us from using these
    • somatic markers
    • frontal lobe
  35. this emotion:
    keeps you from doing things detrimental to relationships and encourages things to strengthen the relationship
    displays of this show you care
    is an influence tactic- can influence behavior of others
    guilt
  36. damage to this part of the brain leads to lower EQ scores
    Amygdala
  37. when a need is unfulfilled, creates arousal and negative psychological state that motivates us to fulfill that need
    drives and incentives
  38. attention to wheather needs are being met and goals achieved
    -->adjust behavior accordingly
    regulation
  39. TOTE
    process of regulation
    • Test
    • Operate
    • reTEST
    • Exit (if applicable)
  40. pursuit of potential gains, tied to positve reinforcement and negative punishment in children, leads to either happiness or sadness
    promotion motivation
  41. avoid potential loss, tied to negative reinforcement/positive punishment, leads to relief or anxiety
    prevention motivation
  42. an effective way to regulate moods which is also healthy
    it regulates negative emotions
    causes similar affects as exercise
    humor/laughter
  43. attempt not to feel or respond to emotion
    thought repression
  44. people think more about what they're trying to repress
    rebound effect
  45. focusing on, thinking about, elaborating on undesired thoughts and feelings
    -->prolongs the mood
    remunination
  46. best way to regulate your mood
    distraction
  47. theory of how we feel emotion
    emotion is embodied and it is the bodily sensation that gives rise to the emotion
    sensations-->emotion
    Fritz pen study supports
    James-Lange
  48. theory on how we feel emotion:
    bodily and mental emotions separate but simultaneous
    bear-->think scary and HR increases AT SAME TIME
    Canon-Bard
  49. theory of how we feel emotion:
    there are 2 factors:
    emotional arousal
    cognitive interpreation of the arousal
    supported by adrenaline injection study
    *once we experience an emotion, we try to explain/understand it
    Stan-Schachter

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