Music History Final TERMS

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kaela.crystal
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Music History Final TERMS
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2011-05-05 13:30:30
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music history final terms, section 3
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  1. Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
    • BEETHOVEN took counterpoint lessons with Albrechtsberger
    • while studying composition with Haydn
  2. Appassionata
    • One of Beethoven's three great piano sonatas of his middle period
    • Expanded dimensions and expressive range
  3. Napoleon Bonaparte
    • Army general and war hero
    • first council of the republic
    • emperor in 1804
    • Beethoven originally named Eroica Symphony "Bonaparte" but then changed it after he declared himself as emperor
  4. cadenza
    • Highly embellished passage,
    • often IMPROVISED,
    • at an important CADENCE
    • usually occurring just before the end of a piece or section.
  5. Congress of Vienna
    • After the French Revolution, congress of Vienna consolidated their territories to many fewer
    • new boundaries
    • liberty, equality, brotherhood, and national identity
  6. concerto first-movement form
    • Sonata Form
    • ||: P TR MC S C:||
    • Combines the ritornello structure of the Baroque era with aspects of sonata form
    • 5-part structure
  7. Lorenzo Da Ponte
    • Librettist
    • Mozart based three of his operas on his librettos, including Don Giovanni
    • Da Ponte had greater depth of character
    • comic and serious characters
    • had characters between comic and serious, aka mezzo carattere
  8. Diabelli Variations
    • Composer: Antioni Diabelli
    • sent a waltz to prominent composers on which to write variations
    • Beethoven doesn't publish it, but writes his own 33 variations
  9. dramma giocoso
    • "joking drama"
    • Ex. Don Giovanni
  10. Maximilian Franz
    • During Beethoven's years in Bonn (1770-1791)
    • Worked under service of Maximilian, elector of Cologne
  11. Freemasonry
    • Mozart was a Freemason
    • Magic Flute had a lot of Freemason symbolism
    • Egyptian References in scenery
    • Haydn was also Freemason
    • Secret society
  12. Johann Joseph Fux
    • Wrote treatises on counterpoint
    • Mozart learned a lot from him
  13. Gradus ad Parnassum
    One of Fux's treatises on counterpoint
  14. Hammerklavier
    • Late piano sonata in Bb Major Op. 106
    • EXTREMELY difficult to play
    • demonstrates Beethoven's virtuosity on the piano
    • Not there to sound pretty
  15. Haydn Quartets
    • Mozart wrote a series of string quartets dedicated to Haydn
    • developed and contrapuntal
    • "The Hunt" is nicknamed this because it's based on horn calls
    • "Dissonance" quartet because of slow intro with unprepared dissonances
    • Introduced SuD into his string quartets like mini symphonies
  16. Heiligenstadt Testament
    • Letter written by Beethoven to his brother Karl
    • lamenting the loss of his hearing
    • reflects despair over increasing deafness
    • Never actually sent it
  17. Industrial Revolution
    • Transformed western economy from agriculture to manufacturing
    • began in british textile industry around middle of 18th century
    • Brought people from country to cities
    • society based on mass production
    • similar to how BEETHOVEN changed society's concepts of music
  18. Prince Karl Lichnowsky
    • BEETHOVEN dedicated his first set of three piano trios to Lichnowsky
    • aristocratic supporter
    • 1795
  19. mezzo caraterre
    • Characters in between serious and comic
    • In librettos by Da Ponte, and used in operas by Mozart
  20. "MuB es sein?"
    • MUST IT BE?
    • From slow introduction of last movement of a string quartet
    • Gets answered at the end, It must be
    • The whole movement is moving towards this "difficult resolution"
    • He wanted people to study these pieces, published in score
  21. Leichte Sonaten
    • Op. 49, Piano Sonata by Beethoven
    • intended to be a pedagogical piece
    • "easy" sonatas
    • expansive
  22. Count Metternich
    • Instituted repressive government in Vienna
    • Furthered Beethoven's depression
    • Beethoven became suspicious, authorities, paranoid
  23. Leopold Mozart
    • Mozart's father
    • promoted musical lives of his children
    • arranged tours
  24. Ode to Joy
    • Winds begin the "Ode to Joy" theme in the 9th Symphony
    • very recognizeable
  25. Count Franz von Oppersdorff
    Beethoven's fourth symphony is dedicated to him
  26. Count Razumovsky
    • String quartets 7-9, Op. 59 Beethoven were dedicated to him
    • Russian Ambassador for Vienna
    • Uses a characteristically "russian" theme in these string quartets
  27. Archduke Rudolf
    • Took lessons from Beethoven in piano and composition
    • He was a supporter and patron of Beethoven
    • Beethoven dedicated 14 compositions to him
  28. Salzburg
    • Mozart's years in Salzburg
    • Worked for Archbishop
    • Freelanced here
    • received commission to compose opera seria Idomeneo
    • Left archbishop to go to Vienna
  29. scherzo
    • Minuet and Trio Form
    • Particularly fast
  30. Johann Schobert
    • Came in contact with Leopold Mozart
    • Greatly influenced young Mozart's works
    • he arranged movements of Schobert's sonatas for his own piano concertos
  31. serenade
    • Semi-dramatic piece
    • for several singers and small orchestra
    • usually written for special occassion
  32. song cycle
    • a group of songs that tell a particular story
    • Beethoven's An die ferne Gelibete
  33. topoi (AKA "topics")
    • Used by Mozart
    • styles and gestures
    • easily recognizeable to listeners and performers of Mozart's time
  34. Johann von Schiller
    • Wrote the original words on which "Ode to Joy" was based
    • Some tried to compose music to this, but very few after Beethoven
  35. Baron Gottfied von Swieten
    • Introduced the music of J.S. Bach to Mozart
    • increased his usage of contrapuntal textures
    • Introduced Handel to Mozart
  36. Haydn's life
    • Known as the father of symphony and string quartet
    • 1) Early- 57-61, worked for Count Morzin, composed first symphonie, 3 movements
    • 2)61-67, Worked for Esterhazy's, added flute and bassoon, known for his novelty and variety
    • 3) 68-72, late Esterhazy, longer, rhythmically complex, contrapuntal, challenging, SuD, emotional, agitated
    • 4) 73-81, went public in 79, started to mix in popular elements as he went public, but still maintained SuD
    • 5) 81-91, Sold music to patrons,
    • 6) 91-94, Solomon, London, daring harmonies, rhythmic drive, memorable melodies, filled out orchestra even more
  37. Haydn's life simplified
    • relatively simple in the beginning
    • isolation made him try some new exciting stuff
    • then his emo phase showed up
    • started going public so mixed popular stuff in with SuD
    • maybe could add some fun trumpets and timpanis?
    • found himself in London, actually was what he wanted to be, daring, memorable, and driving
  38. Bach's life
    • Arranged other people's works in the beginning, that's how he learned composition
    • shape intial theme
    • created vocal melody lines that were meaningful to words
    • adopted old material to fit new words
    • Arnstadt - church organist
    • Muhlhausen - church organist
    • Weimar - court organist
    • Weimar - concert master
    • Cothen - court music director, MOST OF HIS OUTPUT OCCURRED HERE, solo and ensemble music, Well-tempered clavier and Brandenburg concertos
    • Leipzig - step down in status from where he was, cantor St. Thomas school, and directory, wrote a different cantata every week along with significant keyboard works
    • Leipzig - director of collegium musicum
  39. 18th century politics
    • States all divided during Bach's time
    • German divided
    • Italians divided, people traveling into country, gets many styles
    • Naples strongest
  40. Handel
    • Born in Germany
    • Learned organ, ctpt there
    • matured as a composer in England
    • Music was REALLY popular
    • He had an international style, he met all the big composers of the time
    • Patron's wishes decided what he composed, no freedom
  41. Mozart's life
    • Child prodigy
    • Father promoted music and whored him out on tours
    • influences were schobert and j.c. bach
    • spent most of his time in Italy
    • Salzburg - 74-81, held position w/ archbishop, looked for other emploment, after writing an opera seria he leaves and goes to Vienna
    • Vienna - 81-91, free lance musician, great improvisor, earned income from several sources, had poor income management with serious money problems, took piano students while there, Vienna's finest pianist, composed on commision for publication, appointed chamber musician and to compose for emperor
  42. Mozart vs. Haydn
    • Mozart = safer
    • Didn't compose as much experimental stuff
    • didn't reach Haydn's level until later in his life
    • one was a freelancer for little money, the other was always employed for a lot of money
  43. Beethoven
    • Early - Pathetique, Piano Trio, Symphony No. 1 + 2
    • Mostly chamber music, waited till he was an established musicians before he wrote symphonies, strong contrasts of style, expressive range, early sonatas for amateurs, yet still technically difficult
    • Middle - Eroica symphony, symph. no. 5 + 6, Fidelio composed w/ deliberation, realizing that his deafness may become total, gets depressed, starts showing up in his music. building on models of haydn and mozart, more grand piano concertos, incorporates cadenza here, chamber = testing technical abilities
    • Late - goes into isolation, deafness almost complete, suspicious of family and friends. life sucks. testament. piano sonata, hammer klavier, diabeli variations, introspective, immitative counterpoint, variation structures for themes, CRAZY AS SHIT, wrote the lied, all of his late works challenged his players

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