T brucei clinical signs: meningoencephalitic stage
lead to loss of consciousness and coma.
T brucei clinical signs: cattle
Inflammation and necrosis in parenchymatous organs
Enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes
Intermittent high fever
Loss of condition
Isospora and Eimeria pathogenic factors
Pathogenic factors related to coccidial species:
------Number of cells destroyed per oocyst ingested
------Speed of schizogony
------Location of schizogony and gametogony
Pathogenic factors not related to coccidial species:
------Number of oocysts ingested
------Host age, condition and immune status
Both stages in small and large intestine
First generation in lamina propria
Bloody dysentery with tenesmus
“Nervous” and “Winter” coccidiosis
Asexual in small/large intestine, sexual in cecum/colon.
Severe enteritis and diarrhea
Eimeria stiedae symptoms
inflammation of bile ducts
white nodules on liver
Asexual in small/large intestine
Sexual in cecum/colon
Catarrhal enteritis with green, pasty scours (no blood)
Die from dehydration
Acute, non-bloody diarrhea with abdominal pain
Especially seen in immunocompromised patients
Isospora canis, Isospora felis
All stages in small intestine
Disease of puppies and kittens
Catarrhal to slight hemorrhagicenteritis
Diarrhea may be copious, watery, and persistent
Eimeria sp. pseudoparasites
Cryptosporidium sp. symptoms: cattle
Infection could be inapparent; or,
Infection is severe with debilitating diarrhea.
Animals usually ~14 days old at onset
Yellow, watery diarrhea
Recovery within a couple of weeks.
Cryptosporidium sp. symptoms: humans
-----Infection lasts for ~5-10 days.
-----Diarrhea severe enough for hospitalization
-----Possible life threatening due to hyperinfection.
-----May involve respiratory tract.
Toxoplasma gondii symptoms: animals
Cats rarely have disease.
Dogs may have fever, dyspnea, etc.
#1 cause of Abortion in sheep.
Toxoplasma gondii symptoms: humans
Congenital---varying degrees depending on stage of pregnancy when infection was acquired
Sarcocystis cruzi pathogenesis
Ulcerations in oral cavity, esophagus, and intestines
Pallor of mucous membranes
Dark clear fluid in pericardial sac and thoracic/abdominal cavities
Sarcocystis cruzi symptoms in IH
decreased milk yields,
Sarcocytis neurona sypmtoms
Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)
Focal hemorrhages, discoloration, and softening of brain and spinal cord
Multifocal myeloencephalitis with necrosis
Ataxia, stumbling, disorientation, weakness, lameness, falling and muscle wasting
Blindness, torticollis, circling, dysphagia and loss of reflexes
Sudden or gradual onset, leads to death
Neospora caninum symptoms
Puppies: flaccid hind-limb paralysis
Adults: neurological, nodular dermatitis, pneumonia, urine/fecal incontinence, etc.
Major cause of bovine abortions.
Fever cycles for malaria
Subtertian = fever every 36 hours?
Tertian = fever every 48 hours
Quartan = fever every 72 hours?
Pigment that attracts iron, produced by trophozoites in Plasmodium life cycle
Reproduction in Plasmodium spp. life cycle
Shizogony: asexual reproduction, in liver stage
Sporogony: sexual reproduction, in erythrocytic and sporogonic cycles
Clinical signs of Plasmodium spp.
a cold stage: sensation of cold, shivering
a hot stage: fever, headaches, vomiting; seizures in young children
a sweating stage: sweats, return to normal temperature, tiredness
In P. falciparum malaria, additional findings may include: Mild jaundice, Enlargement of the liver, Increased respiratory rate
Complications of malaria
Pulmonary edema or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Abnormalities in blood coagulation and thrombocytopenia (decrease in blood platelets)
Cardiovascular collapse and shock
Acute kidney failure
Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose), especially in pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria, or after treatment with quinine.
Metabolic acidosis (excessive acidity in the blood and tissue fluids), often in association with hypoglycemia
Severe malaria occurs most often in persons who have no immunity to malaria or whose immunity has decreased. These include all residents of areas with low or no malaria transmission, and young children and pregnant women in areas with high transmission.
Anopheles spp. behaviors
Anthroprophilic = feed on humans only, Zoophilic = feed on animals