Psychology 101

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Psychology 101
2011-05-06 11:40:40
psychology terms

psychological perspectives research methods nervous system sleep brain parts psychoactive drugs classical operant conditioning observational learning memory
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  1. structuralism
    perspective that the task of psycholgy is to analzye consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related; introspection; Titchener
  2. functionalism
    based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure; James
  3. psychoanalytic
    attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinatns of behavior; Sigmund Freud
  4. behaviorism
    a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study and observe behavior; John Watson, Skinner
  5. humanism
    a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth; Carl Rodgers & Abraham Maslow
  6. applied psychology
    the branch concerned with every day practical problems
  7. clinical psychology
    the branch concerned with the diagnosis and treament of psychologial problems and disorders
  8. biological perspective
    believes that much of the human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of the bodily structure and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave
  9. evolutionary psychology
    examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
  10. positive psychology
    uses theory and reserach to better understand the postitive, adaptive, creative, and fufilling aspects of human existence
  11. basic research
    research for research sake
  12. applied research
    answering questions for application
  13. correlational/descriptive research
    plain description; cannot rule out any rival hypotheses
  14. naturalistic observation
    observing naturally ocurring behavior in as subtle a way as possible; cons are that subjects may know they are being watched, time consuming, ethical issues, only public behavior
  15. self report
    asking about sensitive topics or rare behaviors thorugh questionaire or survey (inexpensive); cons can be bad interviewer, bad survey, dishonest or lazy survey takers
  16. trace measure
    looking at behavioral biproducts or artifacts left behind; accretion is adding, erosion is taking way
  17. case study
    a descriptive study of just one person used as the first steps into unknown areas; cons are that it's very time consuming, expensive, and subjective
  18. experimental research
    includes control and manipulation of environment
  19. random assignment
    rules out other variables
  20. confounding variables
    any variable that can affect the results
  21. demand characteristics
    anything that might cue the subjects into the purpose of the experiment
  22. Hawthorne effect
    change in behavior because people know they're being observed
  23. double blind experiment
    both participants and experimenters are blind to variables
  24. sampling bias
    differences between voluneets and non-voluneets can effect results
  25. guidelines for ethical research (6)
    informed consent, voluntary participation, right to withdraw at all times, minimize harm and discomfot, insure confidentiality, and deception only if justifiable
  26. central nervous system
    the brain and spinal cord
  27. peripheral nervous system
    all the nerves that radiate from CNS to the rest of the body
  28. autonomic nervous system
    controls interal organs and involuntary functions
  29. somatic nervous system
    controls muscular systems and external sensor receptors
  30. sympathetic CNS
    state of arousal; fight or flight
  31. parasympathetic CNS
    calm state; rest and digest
  32. neuron cell
    communicates information throughout the nervous system
  33. sensory (afferent) neurons
    bring sensory information in and send to the CNS
  34. motor (efferent) neurons
    transmit information outwards from the CNS back to the sensory neurons
  35. intraneuron/association neurons
    link sensory and motor neurons inside the spinal cord
  36. glial
    "nerve glue" that feeds and removes dead neurons
  37. synapse or synaptic gap
    the small fluid filled space between two neurons
  38. action potential (3 steps)
    the brief change in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon; 1) neuron recieves sensory signal 2) sodium moves into the neuron and the charge goes from -70mv to +40mv 3) neuron starts pumping sodium out; threshhold is at -55mv
  39. nodes of ranvier
    places along the axon where there is no glial
  40. myelin sheath
    glial that surrounds axon and helps message to travel faster
  41. axon
    long part of neuron that transmits messages; the thicker the faster
  42. axon terminals
    parts at the end of the axon that release neurotrasnmitters into the synapse to other neuron and send messages
  43. dendrites
    parts near the nucleus that recieve messages from other neurons
  44. presynaptic/postsynaptic neurons
    presynaptic sends the message and post synaptic recieves the message
  45. synaptic transmission (3 steps)
    transmission of neurotransmitters between two neurons in synapse; 1) presynaptic neuron releases neurotransmitters into the synapse as synaptic vesicles rupture 2) neurotransmitters bind bind to side of postsynaptic neuron and are then released 3) reuptake: presynaptic neuron absorbs neurotransmitters, destroyed, or drift off
  46. lesion
    removing brain parts or burning precisely; not very ethical and limiting
  47. electrical brain stimulation
    using electrodes to stimulate different ares of the brain and see what happens
  48. transcranial magnetic stimulation
    using a magnet to temporarily affect surface part of brain
  49. electroencephalograph (EEG)
    measures electrical activity in the brain, but not in specific areas
  50. computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)
    forms picture based on composite x-rays
  51. positron emission tomography (PET scan)
    injecting the brain with glucose; recieves a horizontal, color coded slice view of brain
  52. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    very powerful magnetism stimulates hydrogen atoms and gives detailed image of brain from different angles
  53. functional MRI
    shows blood flow and MRI images
  54. the hindbrain includes...
    medulla, pons, reticular formation/activating system, and cerebellum
  55. medulla
    controls involuntary body funtions
  56. pons
    connects lower and higher region; controls arousal and sleep
  57. reticular formation
    involved in arousal and sleep, attention and consiousness
  58. cerebellum
    controls coordinated movement
  59. midbrain
    recieves auditory and visual information
  60. forebrain
    involved in higher level thinking, emotions, and personality; includes thalamus and limbic system
  61. thalamus
    sensory relay stations for everything but smell
  62. limbin system (3)
    involved in motivation and emotion; includes hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala
  63. hypothalamus
    pleasure center; controls basic drives and emotions (4 Fs)
  64. amygdala
    involved in emotion, aggression, and fear
  65. cerebral cortex
    involved in higher level thinking
  66. frontal lobe
    located near forehead; involed in higher level thinking, judgement, and conttols movement
  67. parietal lobe
    top back of head; key for sensations
  68. occiptal lobe
    at low back of head; visual functioning
  69. temporal lobe
    at sides by ears and involved in hearing
  70. Broca's area
    controls production of speech
  71. Wernicke's area
    controls understanding of language
  72. left hemisphere
    controls right side of body; involved in speech, language, logic, math
  73. right hemisphere
    controls left side of body; involed in non-verbal, creativity, spatial ability, artistic
  74. sclera
    white, protective outer covering of eye
  75. cornea
    transparent, fluid filled, curved, fixed size area of eye
  76. fovea
    the center of the retina; image is upside down and backwards here
  77. pupil
    a hole controlled by the iris muscle that contracts and relaxes based on different things
  78. iris
    colored area of eye that also has red back layer
  79. lens
    changes shape with cilary muscles to be round when something is close and flat when far away; transparent
  80. vitreous humour
    jelly that protects eye
  81. tranductions
    the conversion of energy into neural impulses that ocurrs in the retinal cells
  82. myopia (nearsightedness)
    not being able to see far away because the eye is too long
  83. hyperopia (farsightedness)
    not being able to see up close because the eye is too short
  84. rods
    light sensitive cells that are located in periphery
  85. cones
    responsible for color and clear daylight vision; in fovea
  86. optic chiasm
    where optic nerves cross over in the brain, going to the thalamus
  87. order cells in eye going towards optic nerve
    ganglion, bipolar, photoreceptor
  88. circadian rhythm
    24 hour clock controlled by the hypothalamus; three eight hour cycles
  89. stage 1 sleep
    theta waves and last for five to tens minutes; hypnic jerk
  90. stage 2 sleep
    theta waves and last for 10 to 15 minutes; sleep spindles
  91. stage 3 sleep
    beginning of delta waves and last for 30 minutes
  92. stage four sleep
    delta waves and deep sleep for thrity minutes
  93. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
    stage during which most dreams occur and longest stage
  94. agonist
    mimics neurotransmitters and causes more firing
  95. antagonist
    blocks neurotransmitters from functioning or speeds reuptake, slowing firing
  96. stimulants
    mimics sympathetic nervous system; elevates heart rate and mood and decreases appetite; rapid tolerance and psychological dependence; includes cocaine, caffien, nicotine, amphetamines, and methamphetamines
  97. depressants/sedatives
    decrease or depress arousal in SNS; includes alcohol and barbituates
  98. hallucinogens
    modify consciousness causing eurphoria by increasing serotonin levels; includes LSD, PSP, and ecstasy
  99. narcotics/opiates
    mimic endorphins, by increasing drowsiness and euphoria, pain relief; includes morphine and heroin
  100. marijuana
    depressant, narcotic, and hallucinogen
  101. classical conditioning
    learning an association between two stimuli
  102. unconditioned stimulus
    unlearned stimulus (meat)
  103. unconditioned response
    unlearned response (salivation)
  104. conditioned stimulus
    learned stimulus (tone)
  105. conditioned response
    learned response (salivation)
  106. shaping
    method of successive approximations or reinforcing behaviors closer and closer to desired behavior
  107. extinction
    removing the effect of the uncondtiioned stimulus
  108. stimulus generalization
    being more likley to respond to a stimulus that is simalra to the conditioned stimulus
  109. stimulus discrimination (classical)
    responding to some stimuli but not others
  110. operant conditioning
    when there is a controlled effect on the environment and initiate a behavior to creat a specific response
  111. Thorndike's law of effect
    the law that behaviors are modified if they are followed closely in time by reward or punishment
  112. Skinner's box
    operant conditioning chamber with very controlled environment with lights and shock; rats must press levers to recieve water and food
  113. positive reinforcement
    adding a rewarding stimulus
  114. negative reinforcement
    removing an aversive stimulus
  115. positive punishment
    removing a positive stimlulus
  116. negative punishment
    addding an aversive stimulus
  117. stimulus discrimination (operant)
    reinforcement being avaible for a behavior only in certain situations
  118. continuous reinforcement
    reward after every behavior; not good
  119. ratio schedule of reinforcement
    reinforcement after a number of times; most effective; fixed or variable ratio (best)
  120. interval schedule of reinforcement
    recieving reinforcement after a period of time; less effective; fixed interval or variable interval
  121. observational learning
    requires attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (usually reinforcement)
  122. Bobo doll experiment
    Bandura had children watch aggressive behavior in adults towards Bobo doll, live or on TV; if rewarded in watching would also act agressive and come up with novel agressive acts
  123. primacy effect
    remembering information presented first in a list
  124. recency effect
    most recently presented information being recalled best
  125. sensory register (2)
    mometary imprint of sensory information; iconic or visual held for .5 seconds; echoic or sound held for 3 seconds
  126. short term memory
    held for less than 20 seconds; by chunking can remember 7±2 units at a time
  127. long term memory
    holds for greater than 30 seconds; permanent storage that we are not always able to access
  128. ecoding
    putting information into your long term memory
  129. structural encoding
    shallow imprint of visual image
  130. phonemic encoding
    sound imprint that is slightly deeper
  131. semantic encoding
    meaning imprint that is deepest; can be done through connect to other long term memories
  132. implicit/procedural LT memory
    know how of well learned behaviors and processes i.e. tying shoes
  133. explicit/declarative LT memory
    factual information
  134. semantic LT memory
    facts about the outside world
  135. episodic LT memory (2)
    autobiographical memories; retrospective is aboute the past and prospective is memory to do things in future
  136. retrograde amnesia
    being unable to remember the past
  137. anterograde amnesia
    losing emmories of the future
  138. long term potentiation (LTP)
    long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway; sea slugs
  139. reliability
    whether results are repeatable; scores must correlate with positive r scores
  140. validity
    whether a test measures what it's designed to measure
  141. face validity
    whether it looks like it has questions about the subject
  142. construct validity
    does test correlate with another test of its type
  143. criterion validity
    accuracy of test
  144. standford-binet intelligence test
    mental age/chronological age*100 gives iQ
  145. wesheler adult intelligence scale
    geared toward adults; the older, the more reliable results are
  146. distribution of IQ scores
    mental retardation is below 70; giftedness is above 30
  147. heritability
    the extent to which individual differences in a charascteristic are due to difference in genetic make up of people within a given group; 40-70% due to genetics
  148. twin/adoptive studies on intelligence
    stronger relationship between twins raised together, but still high apart; stronger relationship between biological parent and child, but still strong between adoptive parent as well
  149. periods of prenatal development (3)
    1) germinal - zygote from 0-2 weeks, dividing into different types of cells 2) embryo - blastocyst from 2-9 weeks, forming major parts and attaches to uterine wall 3) fetus - 9 weeks til birth, rapid organ growth and tons of REM, can survive at 7 months
  150. cognitive developmental stages (4 and ages)
    developed by Piaget; sensorimotor (0-2), peroperational (2-7), concrete operational (7-12), formal perational (12 up)
  151. sensorimotor period
    object permanence when out of sight, stranger anxiety, learning through reflexes
  152. peroperational period
    using symbols to represent objects, self oriented, fantasies, undeveloped sense of time
  153. concrete operational
    consider others viewpoints, conservation (ability to distinguish not just number but size of objects)
  154. formal operational period
    thinks abstractly
  155. id
    most primitive drive that disregards society and logic
  156. ego
    reality principle that we can't always gratify id, and blocks id from concsciousness; acquired around 1
  157. superego
    societal values and morality prinicple
  158. stages of psychosexual development (5)
    oral 0-2, anal 2-4, phallic 4-5, latency 6-puberty, genital puberty onward
  159. oral stage
    recieve pleasure from mouth; conflict is weaning way from mother's break
  160. anal stage
    recieve pleasure from anus, dfecating; toilet training
  161. phallic stage
    recieve pleasure from genitals and desire opposite sex parent, while identifying with same sex; oedipal complex (boys) fear castration by father; electra complex (girls) PENIS ENVY
  162. latent
    dormant sexual urges and no conflict
  163. genital stage
    sexual urges reawken and lead to gratification
  164. projective personality measures
    ambiguos stimulus presentend in the test should cause subjective to project in stimulus; rorschach ink bloks and thematic apperceptions test
  165. big five personality traits
    openness to expience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
  166. objective trait measures
    minnestora muliphasic inventory, 16 PF, myers-briggs
  167. Eysenck
    introvert/extrovert central nervous system research
  168. humanistic personality theory
    people are in need of unconditional positive regard and actual self and self concept to overal (congruence, not incongruence)
  169. maslow's hierarchy of needs
    physiological, saftey, belonging, esteem, self actualization
  170. social cognitive theory
    Bandura combined cofnitive and behavioral unlike Skinner; reciprocal determinism is affect of environment and self efficacy is abiltiy to perform in one situation
  171. situational specificity
    Mischel; personality depends on the siutation
  172. approach-approach conflict
    two desirable goals and must choose one
  173. avoidance-avoidance conflict
    choosing between two undesirable goals
  174. aproach-avoidance conflict
    having both a negative and positive goal
  175. general adaption syndrome
    Seyle; during alarm we precieve something as a threat and CNS kicks in; during resistance we become even stronger; if we reach exhaustion because of bad coping mechanisms resistance breaks down
  176. constructive stress strategies
    healthy behavirs focused on the problem or the stressful emotions
  177. destructive stress strategies
    health imperative behaviors
  178. What constitutes a psychological disorder (4)?
    persistent (2 weeks+), abnormal, maladaptive or interfering with daily life, and distress or anxiety causing to individual
  179. five axes to classify disorders
    1) clinical disorder? 2) personality disorder or mental retardation? 3) health of patient 4) environmental or other stressors 5) how well is the person functioning?
  180. prevalence of psychological disorders
    40% of population will have disorder, 6% a servere one
  181. anxiety disorders
    20% prevalence; apprehensive, nervousenes, and feeling of doom
  182. generalized anxiety disorder
    5% prevalence; anxiety for no reason, sleeplessness, difficultry concentrating
  183. panic disorder
    3.5% prevalence; heart attack like onsets of anxiety
  184. phobia
    unrelastic, irrational, or excessive fear of a specific object; being afraid of panic in same situation
  185. OCD
    2.5% prevalence; obsession thoughts cause anxiety and have compulsive behaviors to help deal with the anxiety
  186. post traumatic stress disorder
    7% prevalence; anxiety caused by traumatic, uncontrollable, victimizing distress; re-eperienceing scene, avoiding reminds, hyperarousal (difficulty sleeping)
  187. etiology for anxiety disorders
    behavioral therapy is good for phobias, but negative reinforcement is what spurs OCD; biological-gentically related and brain has more acitivity; cognitive - need to not interpret siuations as threats; psychodynamic and humanistic as well
  188. somatoform disorders
    having physical symptoms with not physical cause
  189. hyprochondriasis
    misinterpretting every health probelm as a dangerous, serious one
  190. conversion disorder
    2% of diagnosis; major change or loss of physical functioning without a physiological reason; paralysis, sezures, coma, blindness
  191. etiology of somatoform disorders
    behavioral - reinforced for being sick; cognitive - irrational thinking
  192. dissociative disorders
    loss of memory
  193. dissociative amnesia
    losing some personal information
  194. dissociative fugue
    losing all episodic memory caused by stress
  195. dissociative identity disorder
    developing separate personalities to deal with stress and forgetting personal information while in other personalities
  196. etiology for dissociative disorders
    behavioral - learned though negative reinforcement to escape from the situation; biological - smaller hippocampal region
  197. mood disorders
    changes in mood with a good grasp on reality
  198. major depressive/unipolar disorder
    16% prevalence; feelings of severe sadness, hoplessness, negative thinking pattern, worthlessness, withdrawal from society, change in appetite/sleep
  199. dysthymic disorder
    mild but chronic disorder
  200. season affective disorder
    depressiond during winter months because of lack of sunlight; lack of energy and needs light therapy
  201. bipolar disorder
    2.5% prevalence; alternating states of depression and mania (euphoria); increasing risky behavior, sex, self esteem; many don't want to take medicine
  202. etiology for mood disorders
    biological - genetic link for depression, low serotonin; behavioral - mania and depression occur from lack of social reinforcement; cognitive - pessimitic or negative thinking pattern pervading all aspects of life, their fault and not going to change; humanistic - blocked self actualization
  203. schizophrenia
    1% lifetime prevalence; disorganized thoughts and language; delusions of grandeur, control, perscution, or bodily disintegration; inappropriate affects and flat affects; hallucinations; styaing like a statue or one repetitive motion
  204. paranoid schizophrenia
    suffereing from delusions and auditory hallucinations
  205. disorganized schizophrenia
    diorganized thought, speech, and affect
  206. catatonic schizophrenia
    stupor or repetitive activity
  207. undifferentiated schizophrenia
    overlapping symptoms from other categories
  208. positive schizophrenia symptoms
    extreme behavior and innaporopriate affect
  209. negative schizophrenia symptoms
    no affect or movement; lacking emotion
  210. etiology for schizophrenia
    biological - genetic link, high levels of dopamine, and enlarge ventricles; environmental - many prenatal factors and parent regulation of emotion; cognitive - negative thoughts; psychoanalytic and humanisitic
  211. biomedical treatment
    altering the function of the brain
  212. electroconvulsive therapy
    mild schock under sedation; very good for depression, but can cause memory loss
  213. psychosurgery
    brain surgery, such as severing corpus callosum
  214. anti-anxiety meds
    mild tranquilizers that mimic GABA; tolerance and dependence problems
  215. antidepressants
    block reuptake of serotonin and cause increased production; at risk for suicide before all the way better
  216. anti-mania meds
    mood stabilizers that flattens cycles; can't take withd rugs and alcohol and patients are unwilling to take medication
  217. anti-psychotics
    used for schizophrenia, breaks with reality; works by blocking rebinding of dopamine
  218. deep brain stimulation
    pacemaker for brain for severe illnesses
  219. who prescribes what levels of drug therapy?
    psychologist, MD for severe; counseling psychologist PHD or PsyD for less severe disorders; clinical psychiatrist for chemical imbalances
  220. psychodynamic insight therapy
    face to face therapy; free association listing of words to get to problem and dream interpretation; resistance and transferance of problem onto therapist can occur
  221. humanistic therapy
    client drives therapy and working towards congruence; provides a listener that mirrors patient's statements
  222. systematic desensitation
    for phobias; relaxation techniques and going though anxiety hierarchy with gradual exposure
  223. aversion therapy
    pairing a bad behavior with an unpleasant conditioned stimulus
  224. behavior modification
    being reinforced for the wrong behaviors caused illness so treatment involes reinforcing for the correct behaviors
  225. token enconomy
    rewarding for correct behaviors; gradually wean off and funciton without tokens
  226. cognitive-behavioral approach
    in conjunction with behavioral therapy; chaning mentality to view events as chalelnges; gratitude journals and alternate acitivty for bad behaviors
  227. conformity
    Asch's study of line lengths; we change our behavior in response to other people; unamity of group and gorup observance are important
  228. obedience
    migram shocking study; norm of obedience to authority, experimenter's acceptance of responisbilitiy, incremental nature of shockoing, proximity of experimenter and learner
  229. zimbardo prison study
    college students pretended to be prisioners and guards and escalated to conflict and abuset; followed one student; deindividuation
  230. social loafing
    a decreased effort when working in groups; diffusion of responsibility and free sider effect
  231. bystander effect
    a person in need is less likely to get help when there are more people around than when there are less
  232. industrial or personal psychology
    finding the right people for the job and keeping them there; selection, job analysis or description, training, performance appraisal
  233. attribution theory
    fundamental atrribution error; mistakes are attributed internally (or due to person) when it's others and externally (or due to situation) when it's ourselves
  234. organizational psycholgy
    motivation, work attitude, leadership, and structure of businesses
  235. human factor psychology
    designing office furnishings to be user friendly and healthy for body