HUM 201

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HUM 201
2011-05-05 17:50:02
HUM Survey Western Culture

HUM 201 Final
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  1. Paul
    Orginally known as Saul. Prior to his conversion he persecuted Christians in the area of Jerusalem. He converted when he came accross the resereced Jesus who struck him blind. He was an apostle and heavily influenced the Christian thinking of the time. His writings form a considerable part of the NT.
  2. Describe the New Testament
    It is the second major divison of the Chrsitian biblical canon, it is preceeded by the Old Testament. The NTs values deal explicity with 1st century Chrsitianity. It begins with the Canonical Gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. It offers the New Covenant, one designed for Christians. Christians hold different views than the ones stated in the OT.
  3. Descibe the Old Testament
    It is a collection of Hebrew scriptures that lay out the values all Hebrews should follow. The first five books are the Torah; they explain the covenant, history of the hebrews, and law/practices are stated. The covenant is a sacred contract between God and the Hebrews. Cultural contributions: monotheism, idea of moral freedom, view of god as caring and just, humans are stewards of Earth.
  4. What are the Psalms
    The Psalms are part of the wisdom books of the OT. There are 150 Psalms and prayers. These hyms were sung and sometimes accompanied by music. They are not creeds or history, but rather poetry and prayer. They are intended to explain all elements of the Hebrew faith. It addresses the entire range of human existance.
  5. Mystery plays
    The mystery plays are the some of the earliest devloped plays in medieval Europe. They were developed between the 10th and 16th century. They were designed to teach Christian values. Originally performed in the Chruch, they moved to the church yard and public marketplace.
  6. Miracle plays
    They are distingued from mystery plays in that they specifucally re-enacted miraculous interventions by the saints in the lives of ordinary people, rather than biblical events.
  7. Morality plays
    These were playsog Medieval theatrical entertainment. Morality plays are a type of allegory in which the protagonist is met by personifications of various moral attivutes who try to prompt him to choose a life of good over one of evil. They deal with biblical teachings.
  8. Syllabic
    A musical device in Gregorian chants. It is when each syllable is sung to a single tone. It is seen in Ave Maris Stella.
  9. A capella
    A musical device in Gregorian chants. It is vocals without musical accompanyment. It is seen in Ave Maris Stella.
  10. Unison
    A musical device in Gregorian chants´╗┐. It is when all voices sing the same melody at the same time. It is seen in Ave Maris Stella.
  11. Conjunct
    A musical device in Gregorian chants. It is when notes sound smooth together. It is seen in Ave Maris Stella.
  12. Mellismatic
    One syllable of text sung accross several notes.
  13. Quant En Moy
    A secular love song, not Gregorian chant. Composed by Guillame de Machaunt. It is polyphonic and disjunct.
  14. Polyphonic
    Two or most voices overlap. One voice is domiant. Seen in Quent En Moy.
  15. Disjunct
    Notes are jumpy and jagged together. Seen in Quant En Moy.
  16. Nore Dame Mass
    Sacred music by Machaut. Polyphonic.
  17. Scholasticism
    Attempted a reconciliation between classical works and Christian theology. At its worst the Scholastics took classical texts and used them out of context to persuade. At its best it probed issues in a methodical and orderly way.
  18. Martianus Capella
    Pagan contemporary of St. Augustine. Introduced liberal arts to the middle ages - a Roman concept.
  19. Trvium
    Dealing with words. Rhetoric, grammar, logic.
  20. Quadrivium
    Dealing with concepts. Geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music.
  21. Saint Augustine
    Saw the value of Greco-Roman rhetoric; used it for the church and Christian teachings. He used rhetoric from Christian texts to teach Christian scriptures. He thought if liars could use it than so could he.
  22. St. Anslem and St. Aquinas
    Both concerned with proving the existence of God. Anslem is considered the founder of Scholasticism. Aquinas was also involved in Scholasticism.
  23. Allegory
    Is a literary device used in a story that operates on two levels. Figurative meaning: characters also represent virtues/vices and universal themes/ideas. Literal meaning: plot (everything that takes place) is meant to teach the viewer a lesson. It is generally treated as a form of rhetoric.
  24. Inductive reasoning
    Specific to general: stats, testimony, comparison. Conclusion drawn from evidence.
  25. Deductive reasoning
    General to specific. Specific instances that prove your conclusion. Syllogism.
  26. Romanesque
    Heavy architecture of the early MA. Semicircular arches. Lead to Gothic architecture.
  27. Gothic
    New style of architecture in the MA. Design is to get closer to God. In cathedrals: vertical section is nave, horizontal section is transept.
  28. Flying buttress
    Provide structural support from the outside. Allows walls to be built higher to God.
  29. Pointed arch
    Arch was Roman invention, but MA added the arch. For structural support and to get closer to God.
  30. Gothic vault
    Takes two arches and crosses them together. AKA: ribbed vault. Takes the stress from the center and forces it down. Entire walls can not be composed of windows.
  31. Rose window
    Any round stained glass window found in a cathedral.
  32. Giotto
    Was friends with Dante. Interested with skills and realism. Initially art was valued by the Church lesson it taught. He argued painting skills were equally or of greater importance. He emphasized proportion, the affects of gravity, optical perspective (foreground objects larger) and grisaille (paintings look like sculptures).
  33. Dante Alighieri
    Was a major Itlian poet of the MA. Wrote The Devine Comedy which is greatly valued. Thought it was his moral duty to develop his wirting talent. Exiled because of his political ideas. Was a Black Guelf - liberal, supportive of the Pope.
  34. Divine justice
    Sin will be punished and the punishment will fit the crime. Used by Dante in The Inferno.
  35. Symbollic retricution
    The law of Dante's hell. Crimes that people commit while living will determine the punishment they receive in hell. Seen in The Inferno.
  36. King David
    Was the second king of the Kingdom of Isreal and according to the Gospels of Matthew, a decendant of Jesus Christ.
  37. Linear prespective
    Used by Raphel - he was a master of it. Huge advancement in arts. Used to draw our eyes to a certain point - think School of Athens.
  38. Optical Perspective
    Used by Giotto. Forground objects are larger than backround ones. Acheived through color and scale.
  39. Epictitus
    He Greek Stoic philospoher who was born a slave. He said "instead of having what you want, want what you have." External events happen through uncontrollable events and we should not fret over them. The individual is responsible for his own actions however.