HBSE Final

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  1. Developmental Theory - Founder
  2. Developmental Theory - Erikson's take
  3. Ego Pschologist – accepted Freud’s ideas as basically correct but is most famous for expanding Freud’s theory of stages
  4. The Epigenetic Principle - Erikson's Developmental Theory
    we develope through predetermined unfolding of stages (8) bloomimg rose
  5. Erikson - Each stage has _____ that are psychosocial and cannot be rushed (make child grow up too fast) AKA _____ _______
    (1)tasks (2)optimal timing
  6. Erikson - If we do well then we come away with certain ....
    virtue or psychosocial strength
  7. Erikson - If we don’t do so well then we develope ....
    maladaptions and malignancies
  8. The Psychosocial Theory was whose?
  9. The psychosocial theory focused on development over...
    the life span, not just during first 5 yrs
  10. The psychosocial theory conceptualized a developmental approach to ego mastery
    a healthy ego propelled people toward next developmental stage
  11. the psychosocial theory had a positive view of people’s ability to change
    people have a sense of inner unity, good judgment and capacity to do well
  12. the psychosocial theory thought individuals impelled not by unconscious sexual or aggressive drives (per Freud) but by
    social forces about which they are conscious
  13. the psychosocial theory developed the concept of ego identity whcih included
    mutual relationship between individual and society
  14. with the psychosocial theory the key to health was a
    nourishing exchange of community life
  15. with the psychosocial theory individuals have membership identities which include
    social class, culture, and national affiliation, each of which has ideological framework, roles, rituals and gives people collective power to create their own environment
  16. psychosocial - personality development begins w/ 3 drives
    • 1)need for social attention
    • 2)need for competence – ability to master one’s environment
    • 3)need for structure and order in one’s social affairs
  17. psychosocial - To Freud’s concept of a biological unconscious, Erikson added concept of
    sociological unconscious – incl cultural factors outside one’s awareness.
  18. erikson - developed concept of life cycle approach
    suggested a tendency of an individual’s life to form a coherent, lifetime experience and to be joined or linked to previous and future generations
  19. Erikson proposed concept of stages of development
    a period of life characterized by a specific underlying organization
  20. Erikson - utilized biological concept of epigenesis
    idea that each stage depends on resolutions of the experiences of prior stages
  21. Erikson - Identity formation
    a developmental task involving the formation of a personal philosophy of life and an integrated set of values.
  22. Erikson's Stage theory
    proposed eight stages across the life cycle, each of which is a developmental challenge. stages involve age-related expectations w/in a particular society. each stage precipitates a psychosocial crisis and involves a task
  23. Erikson proposed that Children have coping behaviors
    active efforts to resolve the tension, which result in personality’s core adaptive ego qualities and core pathologies
  24. coping behaviors include
    • 1)ability to gain and process new information
    • 2)ability to maintain emotional control
    • 3)ability to move freely w/in environment
  25. Coping strategies effected by
    • o gender
    • o available resource
    • o nature of relationships
    • o accumulated experience
  26. Behavioral Theory contributors
    • Pavlov
    • John Watson - conducted experiments on humans
    • BF Skinner - followed watson and expanded principal of operant conditioning by changing or modifying behavior by changing the consequences of behavior
    • Albert Bandura - social learning theory - modeling
  27. Major Concepts of Behavior Theory - behavior is what a person...
    does, thinks, or feel that can be observed. Inferences about a person’s mental activity should be minimized because it cannot be directly observed.
  28. Behavior theory - people are motivated ...
    to seek pleasure and avoid pain. They are likely to behave in ways that produce encouraging responses, or positive reinforcement.
  29. Behavior theory - people behave based on...
    their learning, by direct environmental feedback, and by watching others behave and interact.
  30. Behavior theory - the behavior must be...
    clearly defined and measurable.
  31. Behavio Theory - intervention should focus on...
    influencing reinforcements or punishments for client behaviors. Consistent and immediate reinforcements produce change most rapidly.
  32. Classical Conditioning AKA
    Respondent Conditioning
  33. Classical Conditioning sees behavior as learned through association when
    a naturally satisfying stimulus (uncond stim) is paired with a neutral stim (n stim)
  34. Classical Conditioning looks for the stimuli that...
    precedes behavior. (looks for the antecedents of behavior)
  35. Operant Conditioning AKA
    Instrumental Conditioning
  36. Operant Conditioning sees behavior as
    a result of reinforcement
  37. Operant Conditioning founders
    Watson and Skinner
  38. Operant conditioning looks for __________ of behavior
    consequences..... for what comes after as a means of learning.
  39. Cognitive Social Learning Theory
    Albert Bandura added modeling and stated that people learn not only from direct reinforcement but by seeing how the behaviors of others is reinforced. (increasing the focus on cognition)
  40. Principles of Social Learning Theory
    • Self-Efficacy
    • Learned helplessness
  41. Cognitive Social Learning Theory - people behave based on
    their learning, direct environmental feedback, and by watching others behave. (think of the child watching adult abusive behaviors)
  42. Social Learning Theory - behavior is learned by
    Imitation, observation, beliefs, expectations
  43. Self efficacy
    sense of personal competence
  44. Efficacy expectation
    an expectation that one can personally accomplish goals
  45. Object Relations Theory's basic assumption is that
    All people naturally seek relationships with others
  46. Object Relations Theory's is a modern adaptation of
    psychoanalytical theory but emphasizes human relationships as primary motivational force in life vs drives of aggression and sexuality.
  47. Object Relations Theory considers the person in contect of
    relationships rather than individual entities
  48. Object Relations Theory - contributors
    Otto Kernberg, John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth Winnicott, Kohut
  49. Object Relations Theory - the object
    other person or the mental image of a person that we incorporate into our selves thru internalization.(our ability to carry our attachments to object)
  50. Transitional objects
    connect us with the object and support internalization.
  51. Human Relations Theory - contributor
  52. Human Relations Theory
    Social Norms determine productivity, non-economic rewards are important, workers react as members of a social group, leadership must understand the social roles, the theory minimizes distance between management and workers and informatin flows from the bottom up
  53. Theory X and Theory Y are
    McGregor's adaptation of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and the significance of self-actualizing needs
  54. Theory X
    People have an inherent dislike for work and they must be coerced to work, they prefer to be told what to do and monetary reward is primary
  55. Theory Y
    Work is natural, like play and it does not need to be forced, workers will commit to an oganization's goals if their own needs are being met, organizational tasks should be structured to allow workers to exercise creativity
  56. Systems Perspective Theory assumes that
    An agency is in constant interaction with it's multiple environments
  57. theories under the Systems Perspective
    • Political Economy Model
    • Learning Organizational Theory
  58. Political Economy Model
    Focuses on the need for agencies to receive resources from the environment and impact of interaction on internal processes and the structure o the agency
  59. Learning Organization Theory
    organisms must become complex organisms so they can scan the environment, anticipate change,
  60. Functionalist Theory contributors
    Talcott Parsons, Robert Merton, Uri Bronfenbrenner and Ludwig von Bertalanffy
  61. Functionalist Theory
    social systems are thought to remain relatively stable, are held together by shared values, are seen as socially conservative and it is assumed that they are closed system
  62. Conflict Theory was based on
    Karl Marx - social conflict is economic between propertied and non-propertied
  63. Conflict Theory suggests..
    capitalsim has debased human spirit b/c of structure of social relations in the workplace, assumes that the owners get more and the workers get less
  64. Groups - Expectation States Theory suggests
    that the group members will be more willing to go along with the idea or prediction of how well an act will accomplish the groups purpose
  65. Groups - Status Characteristics Theory - suggests that
    power and prestige of group members are correlated with their status
  66. Groups - exchange theory - suggests that
    human interaction can be understood in terms of rewards and costs (costs/benefits analysis)
  67. Attachment Theory is a varient of
    object relations theory
  68. Attachment theory explains..
    how object relations derive from early attachment experience, and the role of attachment over the lifespan
  69. Attachment theory suggests that
    psychological problems don't derive from internal conflict but innate sexual or aggressive drives but from deficits in relationships, and it leads us to pay more attention to the environment
  70. attachment
    affectional tie with some other differentiated and preferred individual who is usually conceived of as stronger/wiser
  71. attachment behavior
    conduct aimed at attaining or maintaining closeness to an attachment figure
  72. attachment theory contributors
    • lorenz - imprinting on geese
    • harlow - padded wire monkeys
    • ainsworth - strange situation
  73. Ainsworth's 4 patterns of attachment
    • securely attached
    • avoident
    • ambivalently attached
    • disorganized/disoriented behavior
  74. Criticism of Attachment theory
    reflects cultural and individual parental biases, it ignores the genetic component, and it emphasizes early parenting too much and leads to mother-bashing
  75. Object Relations Theory - Donald Winnicott's important concepts
    good enough mothering, holding environment, transitional objects
  76. Object Relations Theory - destructive or dysfunctional relationships may evolve in which...
    individuality is lost b/c energy is devoted to perpetuating early ties to significant others by maintaining learne models of connection
  77. Object Relations Theory - basis for intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment is that if children receive
    "insensitive parenting" they will...
    introject an image of themselves as unloveable and defficient, subsequently they are unable to develop caring, consistent relationships with their own children
  78. Cognitive Theory focuses on
    acquisition and function of human thought and knowledge.the influence of beliefs RE the self and the world on behavior and emotional states
  79. Cognitive Theory Includes
    • piaget's info-processing theory
    • evidence RE how the brain works
    • Social Learning Theory
  80. Cognitive Behavioral Theory focuses on
    environmental conditions or stimuli that induce and maintain behaviors and includes cognitice theory and social learning theory
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HBSE Final
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