History

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History
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  1. Who were the Central Powers in WWI?
    Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
  2. Who were the Allies in WWI?
    France, Russia, Britain, U.S.
  3. What caused the outbreak of WWI?
    • Started in Bosnia (Austria-Hungary).
    • Serbia supported the slavic revolution in Bosnia and the leader of Austria Hungary was assasinated.
    • Austria Hungary said Serbia was responsible and declared war.
  4. What was the Schlieffen Plan?
    Count Alfred Von Schlieffen saw that the British and France had more industry and could sustain a long war. The plan was to hurry and defeat both quickly so they couldn't be outlasted. They were going to outflank France and capture Paris. Didn't work.
  5. What went wrong with the Schlieffen plan?
    When Germany went through Belgium, there was more resistance than they had planned. France was able to get into position and successfully defend against Germany with the borrowed time from Belgium. (Belgium was neutral).
  6. Battle of Marne
    • Belgium and France vs. Germany
    • French taxi drivers dropped troops into Marne. Germany lost because France was able to outlast the battle.
  7. Battle of Verdun
    Stalemate between Germany and France that lasted 3 years.
  8. Why was industralism important in WWI?
    • Competition for resources were very fierce.
    • The more industry a nation had, the longer and better war it could wage.
  9. Why did WWI almost start in Africa?
    Because of the resources and French competition for them. They were taking land and resources to build up industry.
  10. Imperialism in WWI
    Before WWI, imperialism was rampant because of the race for expansion and resources.
  11. What was the turning point of WWI?
    Battle of Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes in Ukraine.
  12. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    Treaty that officially took Russia out of WWI.
  13. What caused the U.S. to enter WWI?
    • Germany U-Boats sunk a British ship (Luistana/nonmilitary) that carried British and U.S. citizens.
    • U.S. demaned Germany stop using u-boats. Germany did for 2 years but started again when their supplies got low.
  14. What president declared war on Germany in WWI?
    Woodrow Wilson
  15. Why was India's economy so great?
    Because Britain helped them create railroads, gave them cheap labor, built factories, and had an abundance of natural resources in the country.
  16. Who controlled India during the lifetime of Gandhi?
    Britain. "The Gem of the British Empire"
  17. What did the Indian National Congress do?
    • Worked with the British government so that the Indians could have more representation.
    • Promited educational and social reforms in India.
  18. Who did India fight for in WWI?
    Allies
  19. Indiant Act of 1919
    India said that their soldiers helped Britian so they deserved a bigger voice in their own country. Britain gave them a lot more representation, but did not give up control.
  20. Who was Mohanhas Gandhi?
    • A well-educated and wealthy Hindu man.
    • Educated in London.
  21. What did Gandhi do in South Africa?
    Fought against Racial discrimination.
  22. What was Gandhi's view of Independence?
    India should have homerule and select their own ruling officials.
  23. How did Gandhi creat resistance to Britain?
    In a non-violent way. He wanted to force the British to acknowledge the Indian representation by hitting them financially.
  24. What did Gandhi's resistances usually consist of?
    Strikes, protests, and economic boycotts. Told the Indians not to buy British made things.
  25. What did Gandhi think about the Railroad in India?
    That it was a great and necessary thing, but also very important to Britain. He got the RR workers to go on strike.
  26. What did Gandhi think the Indians should return to?
    Their Native Indian Culture. Speak Hindu and go back to the pre-industrial age and becoming a minimalist people again.
  27. What were some challenges to Industrialization in Russia?
    Socialism - A movement/philosophy to solve problems caused by industrialization and capitalism.
  28. What were some problems with Industrialization that Socialism addressed?
    Economic inequalities, quality of life of the factory owners and the factory workers and general exploitation of workers.
  29. Who wrote the "Communist Manifesto"?
    Karl Marx and Fredrich Engles
  30. What did the Communist Maniesto?
    It proposed equality through the ending of private property and replacing it with communal property.
  31. Which class eventually overthrew the capitalist system and eliminated the class system?
    Proletariat-Middle Class (factory workers, etc...)
  32. What were the 2 differenty types of socialist that were influenced by Communist Manifesto?
    • Revolutionary Socialist (Mark/Engles)
    • Evolutionary Socialist
  33. What was the Revoluationary Socialist type of Socialism?
    Believed that comunist system and socialist system would have to take control of the state with force.
  34. What was the Evoluationary Socialist type of Socialism?
    Believed they could get the community to vote and make the change through the current system. Non-violent.
  35. What were some economic problems in Russia during the early 1900's?
    Millions of peasants had very little land and the population was growing too fast and caused shortages fo food. Influenced farmers to migrate to the city. Conditions of the factories were horrible and didn't pay enough.
  36. What intensified Russian problems during WWI?
    Russian people were being killed our wounded (majory were factory workers and famers) by Germans.
  37. What happened at the 1917 Revolution in St. Petersburg (Petograd)?
    A fight that led to the possibility of the Czar giving up power. Czar Nicholas was execuated along with his family.
  38. What happened after the St. Petersburg revolution?
    Temporary government to provide/create elections. Set up by the evolutionary group.
  39. Who was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)?
    Radical Revolutionary Socialist. He did whatever was necessary to create communal ownership of everything (socialism).
  40. What happened to Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov?
    The German government forced him out, but brought him back later.
  41. What did Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov?
    Rallied millions of Russians against Prov. Government
  42. What did Leon Trotsky do with Lenin?
    Bolsheviks - Lead by Leon and Lenin to provide land, bread, and end Russian involvement with WWI.
  43. What does Soviet mean?
    "Councils"
  44. What was the National Congress of Soviets?
    Lenin Trying to Unify Soviet Groups
  45. What were the Soviets?
    Representatives the Prolatariet
  46. Who was the Red Army?
    Cheka, Reds, Communists, Bolsheviks
  47. Who was the KGB?
    Russian Special Forces who killed opposers of the government.
  48. What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    With Germany. Germany lost alot of land.
  49. Who fought in the Bolshevik Revolution?
    White Army and Red Army
  50. What was the Red Terror?
    Red Army defeats White Army. Casualties were extremely high. Mass executions were performed against opposers. Put others in concentration camps. Everyone who opposed communism were killed or punished.
  51. What was the Russian Constituation of 1924?
    Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (U.S.S.R.)
  52. Who was the Politburo?
    High Command. Made most decisions. Councilmen.
  53. Who was Stalin?
    Leader of the U.S.S.R. Gained support of Politburo officials. Created distrust in other runners and the Politburo.
  54. Describe Stalin's Dictatorship
    Created a Police State. Would confiscate farms and factories of rebellers. Took control of all resources. Focused on military and infrastructure (roads and railways)
  55. What was the Treaty of Versailles?
    Mutual understanding between the Axis and Allies.
  56. Who was not included in the Treaty of Versailles?
    Russia
  57. What did Russia demand from Germany before the Treaty of Versailles was to be signed between them?
    Give up land to Allies and return control to conquered countries.
  58. Alsace-Lorraine
    Germany gave land to France (Treaty of Versailles)
  59. What happened to Rhineland in Germany after WWI?
    It was demilitarized by the Allies and used as a Peacekeeping Force by the Germans.
  60. What did Germany own after WWI?
    Just their homeland. All colonies had to be given up. (Treaty of Versailles)
  61. What was the German military like after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
    • Limited troops for defense only.
    • Allies took airplanes, artillery, tanks, heavy equipment, submarines, and most naval ships.
  62. What were the reperations that Germany had to pay after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
    Had to pay for the war effort paid by the Allies.
  63. Why did German citizens get upset at their government after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
    Because the German government was giving in to the demands of the Treaty signed by the Allies.
  64. What was Article 231?
    • German admission of guilt for starting WWI.
    • Germany had to pay for the Allies wounded soldiers.
  65. What was the League of Nations?
    • France, Britain, Italy, Japan.
    • Designed to keep lasting peace in Europe.
    • Germany was excluded and kept out of the loop.
  66. How did Adolph Hitler rise to power?
    • Because of the bad economy caused by paying the reperations demanded by the Allies.
    • Communism was feared and Hitler promised he would avoid it.
  67. How did the Great Depression affect Germany?
    • Unemployment rose to 40%.
    • Economic collapse in most areas in Germany.
  68. What was another name for the Nazi Party?
    National Socialist German Workers Army
  69. What was Mein Kempf?
    "My Struggle". Targeted Jewish for German Struggle. Started the "Arian" race superiority idea.
  70. Define Lebensraum
    "Living Space". Clearing the Jews from it. Needed room for the German (Aryan) people to grow.
  71. Who created Mein Kempf and Lebensbaum?
    Adolph Hitler
  72. Describe Social Darwinism according to Hitler.
    The stronger race would always win. The "Superior People" would rule.
  73. How did the Nazi Party gain power?
    Nationalism was created by Hitler and the citizens followed him.
  74. What was the Reichstag?
    A meeting place for the Nazi Party to make decisions and collaborate. It was burned by a fire and Hitler said it was the communists who did it, which fueled tension and eventually war.
  75. What was the Hitler Jugend?
    A "youth organization" that trained young people into Nazi's. They were taught at a very young age to follow Hitler no matter what.
  76. What was the sign of the Hitler Jugend?
    Swastika
  77. What was the Schutzaffel?
    • The S.S.
    • Hitler's bodyguard and army elite.
  78. What was the job of the S.S.?
    • To terrorize any who opposed Hitler.
    • Used as a "Final Solution" to opposition.
  79. Who was the leader of of the S.S.?
    Heinrichler Himmler
  80. What happened to the unemployment rate in Germany during the reign of Hitler and the development of the Nazi party?
    Went from 6 million unemployed to 500,000 in 5 years.
  81. What were some turning points in WWII? (Britain and Germany)
    Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain and began fighting fiercly against the Germans.

    Germany began to invade the Soviet Union and threatened 3 major Russian cities.
  82. What 3 Russian cities did Germany threaten to invade in WWII?
    Leningrad, Stalingrad, Moscow.
  83. Describe the Battle of Britain.
    • Fought between the Royal Air Force and the Luftwaffe.
    • Fought over Britain in the air.
    • Britain won because they made more and better airplanes.
    • Also improved on the radar system.
  84. What was the Japan's larger plan for attacking Pearl Harbor?
    Wanted control for industrial production in the Phillipines and East India.
  85. Why was Japan upset with the U.S. during WWII? (Before Pearl Harbor)
    Because they cut off trade with Japan because of the Japanese invasion of Nanking. They cut off their steel supply.
  86. What was Japan's mission when attacking Pearl Harbor?
    Wanted to sink every U.S. Warship in Pearl Harbor and conquer the Phillipines.
  87. How successful was Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the Phillipines?
    Pearl Harbor - Sunk many ships, but didn't get their primary targets. The aircraft carriers.

    Phillipines - Conquered.
  88. Why were there no aircraft carriers destroyed during the attack on Pearl Harbor?
    They were out doing maneuvers in the Pacific. Left that morning.
  89. El Alamein
    Italty invasion into Africa.
  90. Why was the invasion of El Alamein important to the Axis?
    Prevented the Allies from launching attacks from Africa.
  91. Who was the Tank Commander for the United States during WWII?
    George. S. Patton
  92. Who was Patton always at odds with?
    British Tank Commander Montgomery.
  93. Who fought to take back El Alamein (Egypt)?
    Montgomery vs. Erwin Rommel
  94. Nickname for Erwin Rommel
    Desert Fox
  95. Describe the Battle of Stalingrad
    Fiercest battle in WWII.
  96. Who won the Battle of Stalingrad and how?
    Russia. Defeated them because they were more prepared for the harsh Russian winter. Germans lost over 300,000 due to fighting and exposure.
  97. What marked the end of the European War in WWII? VE Day.
    The Allied D-Day Invasion of Normandy, France. Allies landed thousands of troops on the beaches to take back Normandy.
  98. What was the preemptive strike against Germany prior to the D-Day Invasion and who did it?
    Bombings of Germany's industrial centers. Carried out by the United States.
  99. During the precursor bombings of Normandy (German occupied), what planes did the bombing?
    B-17
  100. Which planes protected the U.S. bombers when they bombed Normandy (German occupied).
    P-51.
  101. What was the P-51?
    Fighter plane designed to fight other planes.
  102. Describe the Battle of the Bulge
    Won by the Allies. Allowed U.S. and Britain to attack Germany from the west while Russia attacked from the east.
  103. What major event happened short after the Battle of the Bulge?
    Hitler commited suicide.
  104. What was Island Hopping?
    U.S. attacks on Japan had to be from island to island. Used to take out forces that could outflank and to use the islands to bomb the mainland.
  105. What was the biggest problem with the U.S. Invasion of Japan?
    The Japanese would not give up no matter what. They all died taking many U.S. soldiers with them. The U.S. government realized that they could not take Japan with a land war and be able to recover effectively from it.
  106. What caused Japan to surrender to the U.S. in WWII?
    Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Killed thousands of civilians.
  107. How did Stalin respond to Churchill's speech at Fulton, MO?
    He viewed it as an Act of War.
  108. What circumstances made Americans fear that wester Europeans would turn to communism?
    Poverty, lack of power, civil unrest.
  109. How did the United States respond to European needs
    following World War II? (This is called
    the Marshall Plan)
    Very generious. Gave much to the people of Europe. rich gave money and supplies. Sent billions of $$$ in aid.
  110. How many casualties did the Soviet Armies suffer at the
    hands of Germany in World War II?
    Half Million
  111. What brutalities did the Russians exact on German civilians?
    Burned houses, raped women. Pillaged entire communities.
  112. How was the city of Berlin divided?
    Soviet, French, British, & U.S.
  113. In June 1948 what did action did Stalin take in Berlin?
    Cut all supply lines in the Allies Sector.
  114. How did U.S. President Truman respond to the crisis at
    Berlin?
    Delivered the supplies via airplane.
  115. Why is the Korean War sometimes called “The Forgotten
    War?”
    The way the Americans treated veterans when they came back home. The American people didn't really follow or care about the Korean War.
  116. October 14, 1962—What crisis developed over
    Cuba?
    Soviets put nuclear weapons in Cuba to attack the U.S.
  117. How did the U.S. under Kennedy, respond?
    Said it would be war with Soviets. He embargoed Cuba with the Navy. Ready to fight Russia.
  118. What functions did the Peace Corps play in countering the spread of communism?
    Countered the appeal.
  119. What was the "Domino Theory"?
    If one country converted to communism, the neighboring countries would too.
  120. What was glastnost and how did it change U.S./Soviet relations?
    Openess. Freedom of Speech
  121. How did Gorbachev’s attempt to restructure the Soviet
    economy, perestroika, lead to
    cutbacks in Soviet defense spending?
    Didn't really work. Had to budget defense in order to effectively help the economy.
  122. Define perestroika
    The Soviet Economy
  123. What happened in 1989 at Tiananmen Square in Beijing China?
    Chinese students protested for Democracy. The Chinese government shut them down by force. However, there was a large worldwide movement caused by the students.
  124. What was the significance of the tearing down of the Berlin
    Wall?
    The End of Communism in Germany. Freedom!
  125. What land did Europe give up in the aftermath of WWII?
    Colonies in Africa. They recognized they couldn't economically control colonies.
  126. How was the "white man's burden" changed after WWII?
    White men are seen as violent and kill each other by other cultures. Saw the white man as a flawed race.
  127. What happened to Imperialism in Europe after WWII?
    Weakened by the failure of the "white man's burden"
  128. What is the United Nations?
    A group of 30 nations that encouraged peace keeping and independence movements. Formed after WWII.
  129. Define Pan Africanism
    Social movement that celebrated pride and culture of all black africans. More interested in social reform and rights than independence.
  130. Who helped propel Pan Africanism?
    • W.E.B. Dubois from the United States.
    • Ghana-Kawme Nkrumah
    • ------Educated in Britain and U.S.
    • -------Got Africans to use strikes and boycotts to push for independence.
  131. Describe the decolonization of Africa after WWII.
    France gave back 13 colonies to Africa. Except Algeria.
  132. What happened in Algeria during the African Decolonization?
    France did not want to lose control. They sent 500,000 French troops to secure Algeria to keep it from gaining independence. There were 2 million French citizens living there at the time.
  133. Who fought in the battle for Algeria?
    France and the National Liberation Front (Algerian Army). Used guerilla tactics to defeat the French.
  134. Describe the fight for the Congo
    Belgium fought for it against the French but lost. Congo now called Zaire.
  135. Who owned Kenya after WWII?
    Themselves. They pushed the British out.
  136. What happened to the African tribes when the British suddenly pulled out of Africa?
    They went into Ethnic and Tribal Warfare. Civil Wars. Rowanda, Somalia, Sudan.
  137. How did the Cold War affect Africa?
    The U.S. supported different tribes than the Soviets supported to defeat the Soviets in Africa.
  138. Define Zionism
    Western Europe movement. Jews should have their own homeland (Israel).
  139. Theodor Herzl
    Supported Zionism. Called the Jews the Ancient Israelites.
  140. What was "Ancient Israel"?
    Palestine. Land promised by Yahweh. Zionists believed this was their rightful home.
  141. Who controlled Palestine in the early 1900's?
    Ottoman Empire.
  142. Which people lived in Palestine in the early 1900's?
    10:1 Ratio of Arabs to Jews.
  143. Lawrence of Arabia
    Trained Arabian armies to fight the Ottoman Empire. Said he would help the Arabs get their homeland back.
  144. Balfour Declaration and British Mandate
    Balfour - Formal British Statement saying Jews would get Palestine.

    British Mandate - Giving the Palestine to the Arabs.
  145. Why were the Arabs forced out of Palestine?
    The Jews came back in the thousands and displaced them.
  146. How did the Arabs react to their displacement by the Jews.
    They used terrorist attacks against the Jews and the British government.
  147. How did the British Government react to the Arab terrorist attacks?
    They would limit the amount of Jew immigration into Paleastine because of the violence. This caused the Jews to attack the British as well.
  148. What was the view of Jews in Western Europe after WWII?
    They weren't appreciated. Most had to flee to the U.S. and other neutral countries. The only place they stayed in Europe was Palestine.
  149. What did the United Nations eventually decide to do with Palestine?
    Split it into 2 countries. Israel and Palestine
  150. How did the surrounding Arab countries react to the creation of Israel?
    They built up armies all around them and attacked.
  151. How did Israel survive the attacks from the surrounding Arab countries?
    The United Nations protected Israel.
  152. Which U.N. country did most of the work in Israel?
    U.S. did. Sent supplies, weapons, and advisors to help.
  153. Who eventually won in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?
    The U.N. (U.S.) defeated the arabs and exiled 1 million Arabs from Palestine. Israel wins.
  154. What was the Six Days war?
    War between Israel and Egypt.
  155. How was Egypt able to create a large army and attack Israel in the Six Days War?
    Made relations with the Soviets, who sent them help.
  156. What happened to the Egyptian attack force in the Six Days War?
    U.S. Bombers took out the troops on the borders and the airstrikes stopped them cold.
  157. What did Israel get out of the Six Days War?
    Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), Gaza Strip, West Bank (Jordan), Golan Heights (Syria).
  158. Who was the Palestinian Liberation Organization?
    Terrorist group led by Yasir Arafat.
  159. What was the mission of the PLO?
    Liberation of Palestine from the Jews (Israelites)
  160. Hezbollah
    Muslim terrorist group from Lebanon.
  161. Before terrorism, what were the Bin Laden's known for?
    The name was very respected in Saudi Arabia. Father was very wealthy and into construction.
  162. Why did Osama Bin Laden get angry at the west?
    He started to see Arabians become Westernized.
  163. What parts of the Koran did Osama take very seriously?
    The Jihad.
  164. What are the parts of the Jihad?
    • Greater Jihad - The personal struggle to be a devout Muslim.
    • Lesser Jihad - Defending the Muslims against danger.
  165. Describe the Soviet-Afghanistan War
    Started because of Soviet expansion. This was Osama's first point to defend the Muslims from the Soviets.
  166. What did the Soviets do in Afghanistan?
    Established a puppet regime to spread communism.
  167. Who were the Mujahideen?
    Afghani resistance fighters (Freedom Fighters) who went to fight the Soviets.
  168. Who aids the Mujahideen?
    The U.S.
  169. Who gained control of the Afghanistan government after the Soviet-Afghani war?
    Taliban. Fought against Al Qaeda.
  170. What is Al Qaeda?
    Osama Bin Laden's brainchild organization. He personally financed it using his father's money. Main mission was to fight westernization, mainly the United States.
  171. Which Middle East country helped the U.S. during the First Gulf War and how did they do it?
    Saudi Arabia. They housed U.S. Military and housed the Warplanes.
  172. How did Osama react to Saudi Arabia helping the U.S.?
    He thought it was blasphemous.

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