Serbia supported the slavic revolution in Bosnia and the leader of Austria Hungary was assasinated.
Austria Hungary said Serbia was responsible and declared war.
What was the Schlieffen Plan?
Count Alfred Von Schlieffen saw that the British and France had more industry and could sustain a long war. The plan was to hurry and defeat both quickly so they couldn't be outlasted. They were going to outflank France and capture Paris. Didn't work.
What went wrong with the Schlieffen plan?
When Germany went through Belgium, there was more resistance than they had planned. France was able to get into position and successfully defend against Germany with the borrowed time from Belgium. (Belgium was neutral).
Battle of Marne
Belgium and France vs. Germany
French taxi drivers dropped troops into Marne. Germany lost because France was able to outlast the battle.
Battle of Verdun
Stalemate between Germany and France that lasted 3 years.
Why was industralism important in WWI?
Competition for resources were very fierce.
The more industry a nation had, the longer and better war it could wage.
Why did WWI almost start in Africa?
Because of the resources and French competition for them. They were taking land and resources to build up industry.
Imperialism in WWI
Before WWI, imperialism was rampant because of the race for expansion and resources.
What was the turning point of WWI?
Battle of Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes in Ukraine.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty that officially took Russia out of WWI.
What caused the U.S. to enter WWI?
Germany U-Boats sunk a British ship (Luistana/nonmilitary) that carried British and U.S. citizens.
U.S. demaned Germany stop using u-boats. Germany did for 2 years but started again when their supplies got low.
What president declared war on Germany in WWI?
Why was India's economy so great?
Because Britain helped them create railroads, gave them cheap labor, built factories, and had an abundance of natural resources in the country.
Who controlled India during the lifetime of Gandhi?
Britain. "The Gem of the British Empire"
What did the Indian National Congress do?
Worked with the British government so that the Indians could have more representation.
Promited educational and social reforms in India.
Who did India fight for in WWI?
Indiant Act of 1919
India said that their soldiers helped Britian so they deserved a bigger voice in their own country. Britain gave them a lot more representation, but did not give up control.
Who was Mohanhas Gandhi?
A well-educated and wealthy Hindu man.
Educated in London.
What did Gandhi do in South Africa?
Fought against Racial discrimination.
What was Gandhi's view of Independence?
India should have homerule and select their own ruling officials.
How did Gandhi creat resistance to Britain?
In a non-violent way. He wanted to force the British to acknowledge the Indian representation by hitting them financially.
What did Gandhi's resistances usually consist of?
Strikes, protests, and economic boycotts. Told the Indians not to buy British made things.
What did Gandhi think about the Railroad in India?
That it was a great and necessary thing, but also very important to Britain. He got the RR workers to go on strike.
What did Gandhi think the Indians should return to?
Their Native Indian Culture. Speak Hindu and go back to the pre-industrial age and becoming a minimalist people again.
What were some challenges to Industrialization in Russia?
Socialism - A movement/philosophy to solve problems caused by industrialization and capitalism.
What were some problems with Industrialization that Socialism addressed?
Economic inequalities, quality of life of the factory owners and the factory workers and general exploitation of workers.
Who wrote the "Communist Manifesto"?
Karl Marx and Fredrich Engles
What did the Communist Maniesto?
It proposed equality through the ending of private property and replacing it with communal property.
Which class eventually overthrew the capitalist system and eliminated the class system?
Proletariat-Middle Class (factory workers, etc...)
What were the 2 differenty types of socialist that were influenced by Communist Manifesto?
Revolutionary Socialist (Mark/Engles)
What was the Revoluationary Socialist type of Socialism?
Believed that comunist system and socialist system would have to take control of the state with force.
What was the Evoluationary Socialist type of Socialism?
Believed they could get the community to vote and make the change through the current system. Non-violent.
What were some economic problems in Russia during the early 1900's?
Millions of peasants had very little land and the population was growing too fast and caused shortages fo food. Influenced farmers to migrate to the city. Conditions of the factories were horrible and didn't pay enough.
What intensified Russian problems during WWI?
Russian people were being killed our wounded (majory were factory workers and famers) by Germans.
What happened at the 1917 Revolution in St. Petersburg (Petograd)?
A fight that led to the possibility of the Czar giving up power. Czar Nicholas was execuated along with his family.
What happened after the St. Petersburg revolution?
Temporary government to provide/create elections. Set up by the evolutionary group.
Who was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)?
Radical Revolutionary Socialist. He did whatever was necessary to create communal ownership of everything (socialism).
What happened to Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov?
The German government forced him out, but brought him back later.
What did Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov?
Rallied millions of Russians against Prov. Government
What did Leon Trotsky do with Lenin?
Bolsheviks - Lead by Leon and Lenin to provide land, bread, and end Russian involvement with WWI.
What does Soviet mean?
What was the National Congress of Soviets?
Lenin Trying to Unify Soviet Groups
What were the Soviets?
Representatives the Prolatariet
Who was the Red Army?
Cheka, Reds, Communists, Bolsheviks
Who was the KGB?
Russian Special Forces who killed opposers of the government.
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
With Germany. Germany lost alot of land.
Who fought in the Bolshevik Revolution?
White Army and Red Army
What was the Red Terror?
Red Army defeats White Army. Casualties were extremely high. Mass executions were performed against opposers. Put others in concentration camps. Everyone who opposed communism were killed or punished.
What was the Russian Constituation of 1924?
Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (U.S.S.R.)
Who was the Politburo?
High Command. Made most decisions. Councilmen.
Who was Stalin?
Leader of the U.S.S.R. Gained support of Politburo officials. Created distrust in other runners and the Politburo.
Describe Stalin's Dictatorship
Created a Police State. Would confiscate farms and factories of rebellers. Took control of all resources. Focused on military and infrastructure (roads and railways)
What was the Treaty of Versailles?
Mutual understanding between the Axis and Allies.
Who was not included in the Treaty of Versailles?
What did Russia demand from Germany before the Treaty of Versailles was to be signed between them?
Give up land to Allies and return control to conquered countries.
Germany gave land to France (Treaty of Versailles)
What happened to Rhineland in Germany after WWI?
It was demilitarized by the Allies and used as a Peacekeeping Force by the Germans.
What did Germany own after WWI?
Just their homeland. All colonies had to be given up. (Treaty of Versailles)
What was the German military like after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
Limited troops for defense only.
Allies took airplanes, artillery, tanks, heavy equipment, submarines, and most naval ships.
What were the reperations that Germany had to pay after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
Had to pay for the war effort paid by the Allies.
Why did German citizens get upset at their government after WWI? (Treaty of Versailles)
Because the German government was giving in to the demands of the Treaty signed by the Allies.
What was Article 231?
German admission of guilt for starting WWI.
Germany had to pay for the Allies wounded soldiers.
What was the League of Nations?
France, Britain, Italy, Japan.
Designed to keep lasting peace in Europe.
Germany was excluded and kept out of the loop.
How did Adolph Hitler rise to power?
Because of the bad economy caused by paying the reperations demanded by the Allies.
Communism was feared and Hitler promised he would avoid it.
How did the Great Depression affect Germany?
Unemployment rose to 40%.
Economic collapse in most areas in Germany.
What was another name for the Nazi Party?
National Socialist German Workers Army
What was Mein Kempf?
"My Struggle". Targeted Jewish for German Struggle. Started the "Arian" race superiority idea.
"Living Space". Clearing the Jews from it. Needed room for the German (Aryan) people to grow.
Who created Mein Kempf and Lebensbaum?
Describe Social Darwinism according to Hitler.
The stronger race would always win. The "Superior People" would rule.
How did the Nazi Party gain power?
Nationalism was created by Hitler and the citizens followed him.
What was the Reichstag?
A meeting place for the Nazi Party to make decisions and collaborate. It was burned by a fire and Hitler said it was the communists who did it, which fueled tension and eventually war.
What was the Hitler Jugend?
A "youth organization" that trained young people into Nazi's. They were taught at a very young age to follow Hitler no matter what.
What was the sign of the Hitler Jugend?
What was the Schutzaffel?
Hitler's bodyguard and army elite.
What was the job of the S.S.?
To terrorize any who opposed Hitler.
Used as a "Final Solution" to opposition.
Who was the leader of of the S.S.?
What happened to the unemployment rate in Germany during the reign of Hitler and the development of the Nazi party?
Went from 6 million unemployed to 500,000 in 5 years.
What were some turning points in WWII? (Britain and Germany)
Winston Churchill replaced Neville Chamberlain and began fighting fiercly against the Germans.
Germany began to invade the Soviet Union and threatened 3 major Russian cities.
What 3 Russian cities did Germany threaten to invade in WWII?
Leningrad, Stalingrad, Moscow.
Describe the Battle of Britain.
Fought between the Royal Air Force and the Luftwaffe.
Fought over Britain in the air.
Britain won because they made more and better airplanes.
Also improved on the radar system.
What was the Japan's larger plan for attacking Pearl Harbor?
Wanted control for industrial production in the Phillipines and East India.
Why was Japan upset with the U.S. during WWII? (Before Pearl Harbor)
Because they cut off trade with Japan because of the Japanese invasion of Nanking. They cut off their steel supply.
What was Japan's mission when attacking Pearl Harbor?
Wanted to sink every U.S. Warship in Pearl Harbor and conquer the Phillipines.
How successful was Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and the Phillipines?
Pearl Harbor - Sunk many ships, but didn't get their primary targets. The aircraft carriers.
Phillipines - Conquered.
Why were there no aircraft carriers destroyed during the attack on Pearl Harbor?
They were out doing maneuvers in the Pacific. Left that morning.
Italty invasion into Africa.
Why was the invasion of El Alamein important to the Axis?
Prevented the Allies from launching attacks from Africa.
Who was the Tank Commander for the United States during WWII?
George. S. Patton
Who was Patton always at odds with?
British Tank Commander Montgomery.
Who fought to take back El Alamein (Egypt)?
Montgomery vs. Erwin Rommel
Nickname for Erwin Rommel
Describe the Battle of Stalingrad
Fiercest battle in WWII.
Who won the Battle of Stalingrad and how?
Russia. Defeated them because they were more prepared for the harsh Russian winter. Germans lost over 300,000 due to fighting and exposure.
What marked the end of the European War in WWII? VE Day.
The Allied D-Day Invasion of Normandy, France. Allies landed thousands of troops on the beaches to take back Normandy.
What was the preemptive strike against Germany prior to the D-Day Invasion and who did it?
Bombings of Germany's industrial centers. Carried out by the United States.
During the precursor bombings of Normandy (German occupied), what planes did the bombing?
Which planes protected the U.S. bombers when they bombed Normandy (German occupied).
What was the P-51?
Fighter plane designed to fight other planes.
Describe the Battle of the Bulge
Won by the Allies. Allowed U.S. and Britain to attack Germany from the west while Russia attacked from the east.
What major event happened short after the Battle of the Bulge?
Hitler commited suicide.
What was Island Hopping?
U.S. attacks on Japan had to be from island to island. Used to take out forces that could outflank and to use the islands to bomb the mainland.
What was the biggest problem with the U.S. Invasion of Japan?
The Japanese would not give up no matter what. They all died taking many U.S. soldiers with them. The U.S. government realized that they could not take Japan with a land war and be able to recover effectively from it.
What caused Japan to surrender to the U.S. in WWII?
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Killed thousands of civilians.
How did Stalin respond to Churchill's speech at Fulton, MO?
He viewed it as an Act of War.
What circumstances made Americans fear that wester Europeans would turn to communism?
Poverty, lack of power, civil unrest.
How did the United States respond to European needs
following World War II? (This is called
the Marshall Plan)
Very generious. Gave much to the people of Europe. rich gave money and supplies. Sent billions of $$$ in aid.
How many casualties did the Soviet Armies suffer at the
hands of Germany in World War II?
What brutalities did the Russians exact on German civilians?