PSYC 310 Ch. 11
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PSYC 310 Ch. 11
Self-understanding begins with the arrival of _____ in the second year; continues to evolve throughout ____ and _____ into a rich, multifaceted view of the self
childhood and adolescence
a building awareness that out body is a distinct entity (3 months)
this results from experiences with how their own actions cause predictble responses in others
to perceive yourself as a unique being
around the age of ______, toddlers began to rub their noses when viewing red dots on them in a mirror
self-recognition is well-established by age _________.
in 2-year-olds, a stronger sense of self-awareness leads to stronger assertions of _________.
2 year-olds stronger assertions of "Rights" are not signs of selfishness, but rather of a developing "selfhood", clarification of _________ between self and others.
Language Development permits children to _______.
Between 18 and 30 months the "______ self" emerges.
classification of the self according to salient ways in which people differ (e.g. size, shape, gender)
refers to one's private thoughts and imaginings
Children begin to refer to their own mental states after age ____.
coherent understanding of their own and others' rich mental lives
Theory of Mind
understanding of mental life is limited in that they think people always act according to their desires; do not yet understand the influence of beliefs on behaviors.
Desire Theory of Mind (age 2)
understanding that both beliefs and desires influence behavior
Belief-Desire Theory of Mind (age 4)
Factors that contribute to the development of a theory of mind:
the sum total of the abilities, attributes, and attitudes that you believe define who you are
Preschoolers' self-concepts are largely based on ______.
Concrete characteristics (e.g. appearance, possessions)
Children as young as _____ can demonstrate an appreciation for what makes them unique ("I don't like playing with that")
Between ages 8-11 self-discriptions begin to include _______ and _______, indicating greater cognitive maturity
personality triats and abilities
Between ages 8-11, Mead argues the "self" develops as a _________.
a blend of what we imagine others think of us
Between the ages 8-11, children begin to include both positive and negative traits, due to their experiences with _________.
Adolescence begin to unify separate trits into ______.
higher-order, more abstract concepts
In adolescence, pressure to present different selves to others leads to _____
at this age, they begin to use qualifiers, emphasize social virtues more, and develop a coherent narrative about self and others.
The self-concept is influenced by:
the judgements we make about our own worth and how we feel about those judgements
Why do children become self-evaluative as soon as the "categorical self" evolves?
because now there are features that can be judged positively or negatively
At age _____, children begin to call others' attention to their achievements; they then smile or turn away, depending on the reaction they receive.
By age ____, emotions of pride and shame are linked to self-evaluation
preschoolers are not yet able to distinguish between their _____ and _____ selves, so they tend to overestimate their own abilities and underestimate the difficulties of tasks.
desired and actual
By the age of 6 or 7, these four distinct self-esteems have emerged:
Influences on self-esteem:
Warm, responsive parenting with reasonable expectations for behavior produces children who feel _____.
Parenting that is focused on punishment and coercion is related to feelings of _____
over-indulgent parenting creates a ______ sense of self-esteem.
Parental support that is conditional may cause kids to present ______
"false selves" (to gain approval)
Parental support that is conditional may cause kids to present "false selves" which leads to _____
low self-esteem and depression
common explanations for the causes of beavior (judgements)
the tendency to persist at difficult tasks
Two attributional styles may be observed:
attributes success to ability and failure to lack of effor or task difficulty
What do mastery-oriented people act like?
focus on learning
peristent on challenging tasks
attributes success to luck and failure to inability
What do learned helplessness people act like?
focus on performance rather than learning
have poor self-regulation
our organized concept of the self that includes the values and goals to which I am commited
the four identity statuses of James Marcia's Theory of Identity Statuses
committed to self-chosen goals after exploring options; produces a sense of well-being and knowing what lies ahead
in the process of explring options to try and identify values and goals; a "holding pattern" which may be stressful but is important
committed to values and goals without exploring options; may have adopted goals chosen by someone else, such as parents or teachers
neither committed to values and goals nor trying to achieve them; may never have considered options or found it too overwhelming
Moratorium and Achievement are healthy routes to maturity, leading to.....
Adolescents in Moratorium report ______ but are more _______ and ______ problem-solvers and decision-makers.
independent and rational
Long-term diffused adolescents leave things to _______ or demonstrate _____ attitudes.
i don't care
at the root of long-term diffused adolescents is a sense of _____ about the future
because long-term diffused adolescents tend to "go along with others" they experience more academic more academic and time management problems and are more likely to.....
become depressed, try drugs, higher rates of suicide.
Foreclosed adolescents may be inflexible and intolerant; most are afraid of ______ by those on whom they depend for self-esteem.
Factors influencing identity formation:
There are cross-cultural differences in the search for identity. For example, teenagers who are members of minority groups may also experience stress relating to their developing ______ identity.
a sense of group membership and attitudes and feelings associated with that membership
Many teens form a ________ identity.
they explore and adopt values from both their subculture and the larger culture---and this ______ identity development.
Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death among American teens.
Teen suicide rates tripled between the ______.
1960s and 1990s
Females attempt suicide ____ times more than males, but males complete suicide ___ times more commonly than females.
Caucasians have hiher suicide rates than African-American and Hispanics. However an increase is now being seen in African-American males. _____-Americans have the highest suicide rates.
Suicide risk factors include:
depression or other mental illness
the way we size up people we know
Children as young as ___ or ____ have formed concepts about race or ethnicity based on skin color.
3 or 4
_______ emergences during the preschool years--children prefer their own group to all other groups, and this is cross-cultural.
By the early school years, children absorb _____ toward various social groups.
Out-group prejudices have been observed as young as age ____.
Like their self-descriptions, children's desciptions of others are concrete until the age of ____ or so.
Age of ____: desriptions are more abstract, and they have integrated personality characteristics into those comparisons.
Ages of ______: can provide rich character sketches of others that combine physical traits, typical behaviors, and inner dispositions.
the ability to imagine what others think or feel.
perspective taking is related to _______.
thinking about what someone else is thinking about
Complex forms of this are not mastered until mid-adolescence
e.g. A thinking that B is thinking about C thinking about D
Why are peer conflicts very important?
they offer children valuable learning experiences for social problem solving.
strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements and result in outcomes that are acceptable to all involved
social problem solving
applied the information processing approac to social problem solving and developed a circular model with 6 steps
crick and dodge
6 steps of crick and dodge's Information Processing approach:
1. encode social cues
2. interpret social cues
3. develop goals
4. generate possible strategies
5. evaluate probable effectiveness
6. enact a response