Psych 301.txt

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  1. Naturalistic Observation
    A research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior
  2. Correlational Approach
    Correlational studies are used to look for relationships between variables
  3. Independent Variable
    A variable under the control of the experimenter that may effect the dependent variable in a reliable fashion.
  4. Dependent Variable
    The variable being examined by the researcher. It may or may not be effected by the IV
  5. Between Subjects Design
    An experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions
  6. Within Subjects Design
    An experimental design where all subjects receive all treatment conditions. Also called a repeated measures design
  7. Type I Error
    An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is an error of "seeing too much in the data."
  8. Type II Error
    An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is retained when it is false. This is an error of "not seeing enough in the data."
  9. Confound
    Variables not under the control of the experimenter that vary systematically with the independent variable
  10. Factorial Design
    Experimental designs in which two or more independent variables are used. This permits the analysis of interactions between variables.
  11. Nuisance Variables
    any variable other than the IV that affects the DV
  12. Floor and Ceiling Effects
    • Floor - The values of the DV are so low they are not affected by the IV
    • Ceiling - The values of the DV are so high they are not affected by the IV
  13. Main Effect
    The effect of the change in level of one factor in a factorial experiment measured independently of other variables.
  14. Response Acquiescence effect
    The tendency of an interviewee to agree with the questioner.
  15. Random & Fixed Factors
    • Random - An IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values
    • Fixed - An IV whose levels were chosen non-randomly
  16. Modus Ponens
    • If P then Q
    • P
    • Therefore Q
  17. Modus Tollens
    • If P then Q
    • Not Q
    • Therefore not P
  18. Affirming the consequent
    Using Modeus Ponens backwards (If P then Q, Q, There for P) this form of logic is invalid, based upon this example

    • If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is rich
    • Bill Gates is rich.
    • Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox.
  19. Properties of scales of measurement
    • Identity Property
    • Occurs when different entities receive different scales

    • Magnitude Property
    • Occurs when the ordering of values on the scale reflects the ordering of the trait being measured

    • Equal intervals
    • Occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale (e.g. weight in pounds)

    • Absolute Zero
    • Occurs when a score of 0 indicates a complete absence of the trait being measured
  20. 4 Types of scales
    • Nominal - Identity Property
    • Ordinal - Identity, Magnitude
    • Invertal - Identity, magnitude, Equal Intervals
    • Ratio - Identity, Magnitude, Equal intervals, absolute zero
  21. Quasi-Experiment
    A design where random assignment or selection cannot be used due to impractibility or impossibility
  22. Factors effecting statistical power
    • Alpha level
    • Sample size
    • Effect size
    • One tailed vs Two tailed
    • Variance
  23. Why use an ANOVA over multiple T-tests
    • Require less work/paperwork
    • Multiple t-tests inflate the type 1 error rate
  24. 2 Reasons why correlations cannot be used to imply causation
    • We don't know the direction of the cause - Does X cause Y or does Y cause X?
    • A third variable "Z" may be involved that is responsible for the covariance between X and Y
  25. Advantages of non-parametric studies
    • 1. Less restrictive assumptions
    • 2. Often easier to calculate than parametric tests
  26. Disadvantages of a non-parametric tests
    • 1. Tend to be overly conservative
    • 2. No non-parametric tests exist for some research
    • designs (e.g. factorial designs)
  27. Problems with all single subject designs
    • Carry-over effects
    • Ethical problems
    • Order effects
    • Irreversibility
  28. Ethical principleswhen conducting psychological research
    • Subjects should agree to participate in research
    • Subjects should not be coerced
    • Subjects should be fully informed about the purpose of the experiment before deciding to participate
    • Subject data should be confidential
    • Subjects should be warned of any harmful effects of the study
  29. Sum of Squares formula
    Image Upload 1
  30. Carry over effects
    results from the previous phase carry-over into the next phase
  31. Sensitization effects
    Sensitization effects occur when the subject is aware of the manipulations used in a study and such awareness causes him/her to change his/her behavior
  32. Internal and External validity
    • Internal - How well it measures what its supposed to
    • External - How well the results can be generalized
  33. Function of a latin square
    To prevent practice effects and counter balance
  34. Demand Characteristics
    • Aspects of a study that indicate to subjects how they are
    • expected to respond
  35. Novelty Effect
    Occurs when the DV is affected by the IV, not because of any inherent qualities of the IV but rather because the IV is something new
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Psych 301.txt
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