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Naturalistic Observation
A research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior

Correlational Approach
Correlational studies are used to look for relationships between variables

Independent Variable
A variable under the control of the experimenter that may effect the dependent variable in a reliable fashion.

Dependent Variable
The variable being examined by the researcher. It may or may not be effected by the IV

Between Subjects Design
An experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions

Within Subjects Design
An experimental design where all subjects receive all treatment conditions. Also called a repeated measures design

Type I Error
An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is an error of "seeing too much in the data."

Type II Error
An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is retained when it is false. This is an error of "not seeing enough in the data."

Confound
Variables not under the control of the experimenter that vary systematically with the independent variable

Factorial Design
Experimental designs in which two or more independent variables are used. This permits the analysis of interactions between variables.

Nuisance Variables
any variable other than the IV that affects the DV

Floor and Ceiling Effects
 Floor  The values of the DV are so low they are not affected by the IV
 Ceiling  The values of the DV are so high they are not affected by the IV

Main Effect
The effect of the change in level of one factor in a factorial experiment measured independently of other variables.

Response Acquiescence effect
The tendency of an interviewee to agree with the questioner.

Random & Fixed Factors
 Random  An IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values
 Fixed  An IV whose levels were chosen nonrandomly


Modus Tollens
 If P then Q
 Not Q
 Therefore not P

Affirming the consequent
Using Modeus Ponens backwards (If P then Q, Q, There for P) this form of logic is invalid, based upon this example
 If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is rich
 Bill Gates is rich.
 Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox.

Properties of scales of measurement
 Identity Property
 Occurs when different entities receive different scales
 Magnitude Property
 Occurs when the ordering of values on the scale reflects the ordering of the trait being measured
 Equal intervals
 Occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale (e.g. weight in pounds)
 Absolute Zero
 Occurs when a score of 0 indicates a complete absence of the trait being measured

4 Types of scales
 Nominal  Identity Property
 Ordinal  Identity, Magnitude
 Invertal  Identity, magnitude, Equal Intervals
 Ratio  Identity, Magnitude, Equal intervals, absolute zero

QuasiExperiment
A design where random assignment or selection cannot be used due to impractibility or impossibility

Factors effecting statistical power
 Alpha level
 Sample size
 Effect size
 One tailed vs Two tailed
 Variance

Why use an ANOVA over multiple Ttests
 Require less work/paperwork
 Multiple ttests inflate the type 1 error rate

2 Reasons why correlations cannot be used to imply causation
 We don't know the direction of the cause  Does X cause Y or does Y cause X?
 A third variable "Z" may be involved that is responsible for the covariance between X and Y

Advantages of nonparametric studies
 1. Less restrictive assumptions
 2. Often easier to calculate than parametric tests

Disadvantages of a nonparametric tests
 1. Tend to be overly conservative
 2. No nonparametric tests exist for some research
 designs (e.g. factorial designs)

Problems with all single subject designs
 Carryover effects
 Ethical problems
 Order effects
 Irreversibility

Ethical principleswhen conducting psychological research
 Subjects should agree to participate in research
 Subjects should not be coerced
 Subjects should be fully informed about the purpose of the experiment before deciding to participate
 Subject data should be confidential
 Subjects should be warned of any harmful effects of the study


Carry over effects
results from the previous phase carryover into the next phase

Sensitization effects
Sensitization effects occur when the subject is aware of the manipulations used in a study and such awareness causes him/her to change his/her behavior

Internal and External validity
 Internal  How well it measures what its supposed to
 External  How well the results can be generalized

Function of a latin square
To prevent practice effects and counter balance

Demand Characteristics
 Aspects of a study that indicate to subjects how they are
 expected to respond

Novelty Effect
Occurs when the DV is affected by the IV, not because of any inherent qualities of the IV but rather because the IV is something new

