# Psych 301.txt

 The flashcards below were created by user asdtech on FreezingBlue Flashcards. Naturalistic Observation A research technique in which the researcher simply observes and describes behavior Correlational Approach Correlational studies are used to look for relationships between variables Independent Variable A variable under the control of the experimenter that may effect the dependent variable in a reliable fashion. Dependent Variable The variable being examined by the researcher. It may or may not be effected by the IV Between Subjects Design An experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions Within Subjects Design An experimental design where all subjects receive all treatment conditions. Also called a repeated measures design Type I Error An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is rejected when it is true. This is an error of "seeing too much in the data." Type II Error An error of statistical inference when the null hypothesis is retained when it is false. This is an error of "not seeing enough in the data." Confound Variables not under the control of the experimenter that vary systematically with the independent variable Factorial Design Experimental designs in which two or more independent variables are used. This permits the analysis of interactions between variables. Nuisance Variables any variable other than the IV that affects the DV Floor and Ceiling Effects Floor - The values of the DV are so low they are not affected by the IVCeiling - The values of the DV are so high they are not affected by the IV Main Effect The effect of the change in level of one factor in a factorial experiment measured independently of other variables. Response Acquiescence effect The tendency of an interviewee to agree with the questioner. Random & Fixed Factors Random - An IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible valuesFixed - An IV whose levels were chosen non-randomly Modus Ponens If P then QPTherefore Q Modus Tollens If P then QNot QTherefore not P Affirming the consequent Using Modeus Ponens backwards (If P then Q, Q, There for P) this form of logic is invalid, based upon this example If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is richBill Gates is rich.Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox. Properties of scales of measurement Identity PropertyOccurs when different entities receive different scales Magnitude PropertyOccurs when the ordering of values on the scale reflects the ordering of the trait being measured Equal intervalsOccurs when a difference of 1 on the scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale (e.g. weight in pounds) Absolute ZeroOccurs when a score of 0 indicates a complete absence of the trait being measured 4 Types of scales Nominal - Identity PropertyOrdinal - Identity, MagnitudeInvertal - Identity, magnitude, Equal IntervalsRatio - Identity, Magnitude, Equal intervals, absolute zero Quasi-Experiment A design where random assignment or selection cannot be used due to impractibility or impossibility Factors effecting statistical power Alpha levelSample sizeEffect sizeOne tailed vs Two tailedVariance Why use an ANOVA over multiple T-tests Require less work/paperworkMultiple t-tests inflate the type 1 error rate 2 Reasons why correlations cannot be used to imply causation We don't know the direction of the cause - Does X cause Y or does Y cause X?A third variable "Z" may be involved that is responsible for the covariance between X and Y Advantages of non-parametric studies 1. Less restrictive assumptions2. Often easier to calculate than parametric tests Disadvantages of a non-parametric tests 1. Tend to be overly conservative2. No non-parametric tests exist for some researchdesigns (e.g. factorial designs) Problems with all single subject designs Carry-over effectsEthical problemsOrder effectsIrreversibility Ethical principleswhen conducting psychological research Subjects should agree to participate in researchSubjects should not be coercedSubjects should be fully informed about the purpose of the experiment before deciding to participateSubject data should be confidentialSubjects should be warned of any harmful effects of the study Sum of Squares formula Carry over effects results from the previous phase carry-over into the next phase Sensitization effects Sensitization effects occur when the subject is aware of the manipulations used in a study and such awareness causes him/her to change his/her behavior Internal and External validity Internal - How well it measures what its supposed toExternal - How well the results can be generalized Function of a latin square To prevent practice effects and counter balance Demand Characteristics Aspects of a study that indicate to subjects how they areexpected to respond Novelty Effect Occurs when the DV is affected by the IV, not because of any inherent qualities of the IV but rather because the IV is something new Authorasdtech ID83904 Card SetPsych 301.txt DescriptionWhoot Updated2012-05-01T21:46:13Z Show Answers