A change in the capability to perform a skill that must be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance as a result of practice or experience.
execution a skill at a specific time and in a specific location
- Observable behavior
Negatively accelerating curve
early improvement but slows during latter practices.
Positively accelerating curve
Slight Improvement early but substantial improvement during later practice. See page 253.
Proportional increases over trials or time
Ogive or S shape curve
Combination of A, B, C curve.
– test of a practiced skill that a learner performs following an interval of time after practice has ceased.
Transfer Test –
pg 257. Ex. Playing Volley on the court and playing Volleyball on sand.
sometimes called generalability, the improved performance is adaptable to a variety of performance context characteristics.
Stability – .
the influence on skills performance of perturbations, which are internal or external conditions that can disrupt performance
the second learning progress: performance becomes increasingly more consistent. (Read more on 250)
it’s the fourth general performance characteristic we observe in learning: the improved performance capability is marked by an increasing amount of persistence. (Read more on 250).
Performance Plateau –
while learning a shill, a period of time in which the learner experiences no improvement after having experienced consistent improvement; typically, the learner then experiences further improvement with continued practice.
Stages of Fitt’s and Posners
Cognitive Stage: Beginner focuses on solving cognitively-oriented problems. - Associative stage: Person has learned to associate cues from the environment with required movements: works to refine performance to be more consistent - Autonomous: Final stage where performance of the skill is “automatic” (in term of attention demanded)
Regulatory condition –
– The characteristics of the environmental context that determine the movement characteristics the person must use to achieve an action goal.
Non-regulatory condition –
characteristics of the performance environment that do not influence the movement characteristics required to achieve an action goal.
Bilateral Transfer –
Transfer of learning that involves the positive influence of previous experience performing a skill with one limb on learning or performing the same skill with a different limb transfer. It is better from dominant to non-dominant.
Asymmetric Transfer –
bilateral transfer in which there is a greater amount of transfer from one limb than from the other limb
Symmetric Transfer –
– bilateral transfer in which the amount of transfer is similar from one limb another, no matter which limb is used first.
Frequency of demonstrating a skill – .
Instructor should continue to demonstrate during practice as frequently as necessary
Cognitive mediation theory –
a theory for explaining the benefits of a demonstration proposing that when a person observes a skilled model, the person translates the observed movement information into a cognitive code that the person stores in memory and uses when the observer performs the skill. (See pg.318)
Augmented feedback -
Performance related information about the outcome of performing a skill or about achieving the goal of the performance. This comes from the coach. Ex coach telling player to keep their hand up on defense. (333)
Task-intrinsic feedback –
the sensory feedback that is naturally available while performing a skill.
Quantitative Knowledge of Results –
Augmented feedback that includes a numerical value related to the magnitude of a performance characteristic. Ex the speed of a pitched baseball.
Qualitative Knowledge of Results –
Augmented feedback that is descriptive in nature and indicates the quality of performance. Ex using terms such as good or long
Knowledge of Results (KR) –
category of augmented feedback that gives information about the outcome of performance. Read KR vs. KP 341
Knowledge of performance (KP) –
category of augmented feedback that gives information about the movement characteristics that led to a performance outcome.
What happens when you give erroneous feedback to beginners –
beginners will use it rather than ignore it.
Verbal KP –
Prescriptive is for beginners. A verbal knowledge of performance (KP) statement that describes only the error made during the performance of a skill and states what needs to be done.
is for Advance players. A verbal knowledge of performance (KP) statement that describes only the error a person has made during the performance of a skill.
Performance bandwidth –
presenting augmented feedback that involved providing it only when a person’s performance error was larger than a predetermined account.
– a type of augmented feed that provides information about physiological processes through the use of instrumentation like EMG bio feed back. Looks at brain firing.
Contextual Interference –
the memory and performance disruption that results from performing multiple skills or variations of a skill within the context of practice.
Specificity of practice hypothesis –
the view that motor skills learning by practice condition characteristics, especially the sensory/ perceptual information available, performance context characteristics, and cognitive processes involved.
Procedural Skills –
Skills that include a combination of cognitive and motor components and require performance of a series of relatively simple movement. Ex assembling a rifle
Overlearning - .
Continuation of practice beyond the amount needed to achieve a certain performance criterion
Diminishing return –.
more practice beyond a certain amount where it could become boring or monotonous
Massed Practice –
a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between practice sessions or trials is very short.
Distributed practice –
a practice schedule in which the amount of rest between practice sessions or trials is relatively long.
Task Complexity –
number of parts or components in a skill, and the attention demands on the task. NOTE: complexity is distinct from difficult
– spatial and temporal relationship among the parts of the skill. - High level of organization: parts are spatially and temporally interdependent - Low level of organization: parts are relatively independent
– a part – task training method that involves reducing the difficulty of specific part or features of a skill.
practices the first part as an independent unit, then practices the second part – first separately, and then together with the first part.
Conveying information about how to perform a skill
a part-task training method related to asymmetric coordination skill that involves practicing each arm or leg separately before performing with then together.
a part task method that involves separating the skill into parts and then practicing the part so that after one part is practiced, it is then practiced together with the next part, and so on; also know as progressive part method.
Whole Practice –
a practice strategy that involves practicing a skill in its entirety
Part Practice -
a practice strategy that involves practicing parts of a skill before practicing the whole skill.