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What is the Synovial liquid?
the liquid between the boe joint
What is cartilage and what is it purpose?
Cartilage is the soft and rubbery lining of the bone in th joint. It helps bones when they rub together
What is the purpose of ligaments?
To hold bones together
What does bone marrow do and where is it?
Bone marrow is within the hard covering of the bone and creates red blood cells
What is formed into bones over 20 years?
What two things are needed to make and keep bones hard?
Calcium and Phosphorous
After ossification, what percentage of the bone is non- living material?
What is the difference between an immovable joint and a moveable joint?
The movable joints can move and the immovable ones can't
What is the purpose of an immovable joint?
To cushion impacts
How do immovable joints cushion impacts and give an example of where they are located.
Immovable joints cushion impacts because they have a thin layer of tissue between them. An example of one is the skull (cranium)
List the 4 types of joints.
pivot, hinge, ball and socket, and immovable
How are muscles connected to bones?
How do muscles pull on bones?
What movement don't muscles do?
What are involuntary muscles?
Muscles that work without thinking
What are involuntary muscles?
muscles that need to be selected to move
What is arthritis?
the swelling of the joints
Name the two lower arm bones
radius and ulna
What is the upper arm called?
What are blood vessels?
tubes that carry blood
What is the difference between an artery and a vein?
an artey carries oxygenated blood under a high pressure to the body. Veins take blood to the heart and have flaps that enables only one direction of bloodflow.
What is the role of cappillaries?
to take oxygen and nutrients to cells and tissue and take wastes out
What are the four things blood is made of?
red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma and platelets.
How long to red blood cells live?
approx. 120 days
What makes red blood cells briht red?
Describe a red blood cell's shape.
What cell organelle doesn't a red blood cell have?
How does oxygenated blood get to the heart?
via the pulmonary vein
Which part of the heart does the pulmonary vein carry blood to?
the left atrium
Where does the left venricle pump to?
the aorta and then to the body.
The deoxygenised blood gets pumped by what to get to the pulmonary artery.
the right ventricle
Label the heart
right side is labelled the left parts and vic versa
What do all the veins join into?
the vena cava
What is the process of oxygen being converted to energy?
What tube does the air go down?
What does the trachea break into?
What do the bronchi divide to?
What stops the food going down the wrong way?
Where does the gas exchange occur?
What is asthma?
it is the narrowing ot the pipes from the mouth/nose to the lungs.
What pushes food down in the oesophagus?
the wave perilstalsis
How do the nutrients get in to the blood?
the villi which are at the end of them small intestine
What shape are the villi?
What do the kidneys do?
removes waste products from chemical reactions and turns it to urea. excess contents are also removed.
How much urine can a bladder hold?
How does water help the kidneys?
it dilutes toxins
Each kidney is made up of one million...
The nephrons' job is to...
clean dirty blood
What are enzymes?
enzymes help quicken the digestive process
What happens to enzymes when they get too hot?
they become denatured and can't go back to their original form
What enzyme is in the saliva?
body including heart, lungs, bones and digestion