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test used for immediate memory?
Digit Span: List of numbers and read forwards/backwards
Short term memory test?
breakfast, story of morning, or some other recent event
Long -term memory test?
Something important in their life (War, marriage, deaths, etc...)
What would an alzheimer's/stroke patient remember?
Many memories before the onset of the event
can't remember anything new since the surgery or traumatic event
Can't remember past
4 steps of memory loop
- 1) sensory processed in cortical areas
- 2) info transferred to association areas of temporal lobe
- 3) info consolidated in hypo/amyg
- 4) when needed, info returned to association cortex (prefrontal, temporal, diffuse cortical areas)
Right hippocampus functin?
Left hippocampal function?
words, lists, languages
Long-term potentiation (LTP) pathway?
- Sensory info into hippocampus
- pre-synaptic glutamate release
- Post-synaptic glutamate receptors (NMDA) open
- Ca influx into cells
- feedback to produce more glutamate and receptors
- surface area increases
- **Strengthen synapse after info bombardment
Receive sensory info and build memories to negative events
5 signs of Kluver-Bucy syndrome
- visual agnosia
Kluver-Bucy syndrome causes?
Temporal and Amygdala nuclei damage
three Chemical memory modulators?
- Choline: attention
- NE/Epi: vigilance/attention
- GABA: inhibition
Physostigmine, Tacrine, Aricept, Exelon
Cholinergic agonists (AchE antagonists)
- B-adrenergic antagonists
- Can block LTP