chapter 12

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twinkle
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83986
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chapter 12
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2011-05-06 10:38:07
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Personality Psychology
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David H. Buss
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  1. Darwins Theory of Evolution
    • A species can produce more offspring than the environment can hold leading to a struggle for survival
    • 1. Natural Selection
    • 2.Random Mutation
  2. natural selection
    • survival of the fittest
    • traits that promote the survival of species are passed on to future generations
    • best able to survive
  3. Random Mutation
    random combination of genes often leads to detremental mutation
  4. Darwin's theory of sexual selction
    • 1. members of a species with adpatations thta lead to a mating advantage will reproduce more.
    • 2. characteristics preferred by members of the opposite sex will be passed on to future generations
  5. Inclusive Fitness
    • do not need to directly reproduce to pass on genes
    • by helping a sibling you may indirectly pass on your genes
  6. Sociobiology
    • Our primary goal in life is to perpetutae copies of our genes to the next generation
    • the need for our genes drives our behavior
  7. Sociobiology Fallacy
    • behaviors are adpative because they solve problems not because they perpetuate genes
    • takes many generations to determine whether a behavior has contributed to evolutionary fitness
    • a given behavior cannot be adpative for all environments
    • ignore psychological mechanisms
  8. Cosmides and Tooby
    all selection process occurs in the brain
  9. Empirical Theory of Human Nature
    • socail scientists focus on culture determining social behavior
    • tabula rosa
    • minds are a blank slate and personality development is based on experience
  10. Evolutionary Psychological Theory
    • assume a predisposition to act in some ways and to avoid acting in others
    • nature vs. nurture
  11. Strategy
    an evolutionary selected neural system that has been developed to solve a specific problem
  12. Theory of Parental Investment
    • females of a species are more biologically valuable than males in terms of reproduction
    • they have to invest more and their reproductive system is limited
  13. Sexual strategies theory (SST)
    what we do and what we do to make ourselves desirable depends on whether we are looking for long term or short term mate
  14. long term mating strategies
    • women prefer men who have...
    • resources
    • slightly older
    • strong and possess a tall athletic build
    • display affection toward children

    • men prefer women who...
    • 18.5 years of age
    • attractive with proper waist to hip ratio
    • show signs of fidelity
  15. Long Term Mating Strategies
    • Females attracting males
    • Self promotion
    • Makeup and cosmetic surgery for a youthful
    • appearance
    • play hard to get
    • Competitor derogation
    • Point our competitor’s flaws and smear their
    • reputation.



    • a.
    • Females attracting males


    • i.
    • Self promotion

    • 1.
    • Makeup and cosmetic surgery for a youthful
    • appearance

    • 2.
    • Play hard to get


    • ii.
    • Competitor derogation

    • 1.
    • Point our competitor’s flaws and smear their
    • reputation.
  16. I.
    Short Term Mating Strategies
    • a.
    • Women prefer men who


    • i.
    • Are physically attractive


    • ii.
    • Are physically attractive to other women

    • b.
    • Men prefer women who


    • i.
    • Consent to have sex after a short period of time


    • ii.
    • Lack aversive characteristics such as low sex
    • dive, physical unattractiveness, need for commitment, and hairiness.
  17. Females
    attracting males
    • i.
    • Self promotion

    • 1.
    • Wear revealing and sexy clothing

    • 2.
    • Make sexual advances


    • ii.
    • Competitor derogation

    • 1.
    • Identify competitors as teases, infected with
    • STD, gay or bisexual, frigid, or rarely showering
  18. Males
    attracting females
    • i.
    • Self promotion

    • 1.
    • Brag about income, career, and athleticism

    • 2.
    • Make an immediate showing of wealth


    • ii.
    • Competitor derogation

    • 1.
    • Identify competitor as gay or bisexual, infected
    • with an STD or in a committed relationship.
  19. Love
    and Jealousy
    • a.
    • Love helps to bind couples to one another
    • through sickness and health, for richer or poorer.

    • b.
    • Jealousy is an evolutionary adaptation that
    • protects long term relationships.

    • c.
    • Jealousy like love is adaptive
  20. I.
    Signal Detection theory
    • a.
    • Analyzes…

    • b.
    • 2 by 2


    • i.
    • Either a signal that has occurred or no signal
  21. Error
    Management
    • a.
    • Examines how error costs affect performance on
    • discrimination tasks

    • b.
    • Men are more jealous and intolerant of sexual
    • infidelity

    • c.
    • Women are more jealous and intolerant of
    • emotional infidelity
  22. a.
    Kin Altruism
    • Offering
    • to help genetically related individuals
  23. a.
    Hamilton’s Rule
    • i.
    • rB>C

    • 1.
    • B= benefit

    • 2.
    • C= cost incurred by actor

    • 3.
    • r= proportion of genes shared by actor and
    • recipient


    • ii.
    • Benefit of what you are doing for the recipient
    • must be greater than the cost to you.


    • iii.
    • We most likely act

    • 1.
    • For ourselves

    • 2.
    • Our children and immediate family

    • a.
    • Example: nepotism- preferential treatment of
    • blood relatives

    • 3.
    • More distant relatives

    • 4.
    • Non-relatives
  24. Xenophobia
    fear or distrust of strangers
  25. i.
    Reciprocal altruism (promoted by all cultures)
    • 1.
    • Willingness to help unrelated people

    • a.
    • Enhancing everyone’s ability to survive
  26. Cheating
    • 1.
    • Consuming more than one’s chare of benefits
    • and/or paying less than one’s chare of costs.
  27. Dysfunctional Behavior
    occurs because evolved mechanisms fail to activate appropriately
  28. context failure
    activation of an evolved mechanism by stimuli or situation other than those for which it is evolved
  29. Suicide
    • cost-benefit analysis
    • --> extended family, elderly not contributing much, won't be reproducing, those who are sick...
  30. murder
    • psychological systems are designed for the production and regulation of violence
    • provoked by threats to one's resources or ones sexual repoduction adaptive behavior
    • males are more violent than females due to sexual selection and the propenstiy for risk taking
  31. homicide within families
    • spouses at greater risk of violoence than genetically related individuals
    • children are more likely to be killed by a step-parent
  32. Addiction
    • alcohol-gateway drug
    • encountered this in nature in very ripe fruit with more nutritional value
    • we are made to like sweet things overly ripe fruit will ferment to produce alcohol
  33. Anorexia Nervosa
    • adpative in some contexts (ex. may not be able to find food)
    • more anorexic women
    • -below weight
    • - menstrual cycle changes
    • -bad for reproduction
  34. Anxiety disorders
    Phobias represent ancient threats to our species ancestors
  35. prepared learning
    more likely to develop fear tp certain objects than other mor edangerous things
  36. latent inhibition
    repeated exposure to CS imapirs ability to enter into subsequent associative learnign
  37. Extinction
    presentation of CS in the absence of UCS
  38. Criticisms of Evolutionary Psychology
    • not falsifiable
    • engages in adaptationism
    • legitimizes status quo
    • accepts a rigid biological determinism
  39. exceptations
    a chacacteristic that may have evolved for a specific reason int he past but is used in totally different ways in the present.
  40. nomological network interrelates
    • theoretical framework for a constuct
    • emprical framework for how the consruct is measured
    • empirical relationships amoing and between 2 frameworks

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