PSY 100 Exam #5.txt

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PSY 100 Exam #5.txt
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Exam psychology mood disorders
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  1. abnormal behavior
    Patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological (diseased or disordered) for one or more of these reasons: statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, or violation of norms.
  2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
    Classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; the "IV-TR" indicates it is the text revision (TR) of the fourth major revision (IV).
  3. Insanity
    Legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions, or are judged incompetent to manage their own affairs, because of mental illness.
  4. medical model
    Perspective that assumes diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured.
  5. neurosis
    Outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety and other associated problems.
  6. psychiatry
    Branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
  7. psychosis
    Serious mental disorders characterized by extreme mental disruption and loss of contact with reality.
  8. A member of the Cree Indians believes that a cannibal giant with a heart and entrails of ice has possessed him. He is depressed and suffering from loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, and insomnia, and he frequently sees loved ones turning into beavers or other animals. He has recently begun to have thoughts of cannibalism. He is most likely suffering from _____________.
    Windigo psychosis
  9. A native of Ethiopia is experiencing involuntary movements and mutism. When he can speak, his language is incomprehensible. He is most likely suffering from which of the following illnesses?
    possession by "Zar"
  10. Marie, a citizen of France, is preoccupied with thinness. She exercises excessively and refuses to eat. It is possible that she will die from her illness. Marie is most likely suffering from which of the following disorders?
    anorexia nervosa
  11. Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR describes clinical disorders including symptoms that cause distress or significantly impair social or occupational functioning?
    Axis I
  12. Which of the following statements about people who suffer from mental illness is TRUE?
    A. Mental disorders are a sign of personal weakness.
    B. Mentally ill people are often dangerous and unpredictable.
    C. A person who has been mentally ill never fully recovers.
    D. None of the above statements is true.
    D. None of the above statements is true.
  13. A Vietnamese man suffers from the irrational belief that his penis is retracting into his abdomen and that when it is fully retracted, death will result. He is most likely suffering from _______________.
    koro
  14. Rodrigo has experienced the sudden, accidental death of a loved one. He is now suffering from trembling, heart palpitations, and seizure-like episodes. Rodrigo most likely suffers from which of the following culture-bound disorders?
    attack of nerves
  15. A Thai woman suffers from wild outbursts and aggressive behaviors. She attempts to injure or kill others in her village. She is most likely suffering from which culture-bound disorder?
    running amok
  16. A West African student complains to his parents of "brain tiredness" due to the challenges of school. This student is most likely suffering from which illness?
    brain fog
  17. Which of the following statements explains why cultures develop unique problems such as koro?
    A. People develop culture-bound disorders because they are uneducated.
    B.People develop culture-bound disorders because they have a genetic
    predisposition to these disorders, and these genes are not found in
    other populations.
    C. People learn to express their problems in ways acceptable to others in the same culture.
    D. None of the above statements apply.
    C. People learn to express their problems in ways acceptable to others in the same culture.
  18. Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR describes the patient's global assessment of functioning?
    Axis V
  19. Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR describes the individual's general medical condition?
    Axis III
  20. ____________ is the legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions or allowed to manage their own affairs because of mental illness.
    Insanity
  21. ______________ refers to serious mental disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality and extreme mental disruption.
    Psychosis
  22. bipolar disorder
    Repeated episodes of mania (unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression.
  23. learned helplessness
    Seligman's term for a state of helplessness or resignation in which human or nonhuman animals learn that escape from something painful is impossible and depression results.
  24. major depressive disorder
    Long-lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life.
  25. Melinda suffers from a deep sadness, insomnia, weight gain, and a lack of energy. She reports feeling so exhausted that she no longer participates in any of her daily activities, such as cooking meals, shopping, or cleaning. She feels that she cannot take adequate care of her children and suggests that her children would be "better off without her." Which of the following disorders is most likely troubling Melinda?
    Major depressive disorder
  26. Larry suffers from extreme moods. For weeks or months, his mood is elevated, and he has boundless energy and is highly distractible. He often speaks rapidly, drives his car very fast, and sleeps very little. During these times, he also spends large amounts of money on things that he does not need and cannot afford. Other times, he is very depressed, has little energy, and has no interest in things that ordinarily give him pleasure. Which of the following disorders most closely matches his symptoms?
    bipolar disorder
  27. Which of the following may play a role in triggering mood disorders?
    A. imbalances of norepinephrine and serotonin
    B. abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex
    C. learned helplessness
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  28. Which of the following statements reflects the biopsychosocial model of depression?

    A. Some women may inherit a genetic or hormonal predisposition toward
    depression, and then our society's socialization processes for women may
    reinforce certain behaviors that increase the chances for depression.
    B.If we socialize men to suppress their emotions, they may be overlooking
    and underreporting their feelings of sadness and helplessness.
    C. Both a and b are statements that reflect the biopsychosocial model.
    D. Neither a nor b are statements that reflect the biopsychosocial model.
    C. Both a and b are statements that reflect the biopsychosocial model.
  29. Which of the following statements about suicide is TRUE?
    A. People who talk about suicide are not likely to commit suicide.
    B. Children of parents who attempt suicide are more likely to attempt suicide themselves.
    C. Suicide usually takes place with little or no warning.
    D. Thinking about suicide is rare.
    B. Children of parents who attempt suicide are more likely to attempt suicide themselves.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. ___________ disorder involves repeated episodes of mania, which is unreasonable elation and hyperactivity, and depression.
    Bipolar
  31. delusions
    Mistaken beliefs based on a misrepresentations of reality.
  32. dopamine hypothesis
    Theory that overactivity of dopamine neurons may contribute to some forms of schizophrenia.
  33. hallucinations
    Imaginary sensory perceptions that occur without external stimuli.
  34. schizophrenia
    Group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations.
  35. George's facial expressions are usually "blank," and he expresses little or no emotion. He reports hearing voices inside of his head that constantly criticize him and make vulgar remarks. He has difficulty understanding what is said to him, and when he speaks, he rambles from one topic to another and may become incoherent. He reports that he must listen to the radio constantly because the radio announcer is giving him important messages in a secret code. George most likely suffers from which of the following disorders?
    schizophrenia
  36. Johnny believes that he is Jesus Christ and has returned to Earth to save humanity from certain destruction. Johnny is most likely suffering from which of the following?
    delusions of grandeur
  37. Which of the following are positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
    A. social withdrawal
    B. limited speech
    C. hallucinations
    D. impaired attention
    C. hallucinations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which of the following is/are possible cause/s of schizophrenia?
    A. genetic predispositions
    B. overactivity of dopamine neurons
    C. brain damage
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  39. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
    A. Large doses of amphetamines can produce the positive symptoms of
    schizophrenia in people with no history of psychological disorders.
    B. Low doses of amphetamines can improve symptoms in people who have schizophrenia.
    C. Drugs used to treat schizophrenia, like chlorpromazine, block serotonin and reduce the negative symptoms of the illness.
    D. All of the above statements are true.
    A. Large doses of amphetamines can produce the positive symptoms of schizophrenia in people with no history of psychological disorders.
  40. Which of the following statements about the factors contributing to the development of schizophrenia is FALSE?

    A. In most theories of schizophrenia, stress plays an essential role in triggering schizophrenic episodes.
    B.Some investigators suggest that communication disorders in parents and
    family members may be a predisposing factor for schizophrenia.
    C. The dopamine hypothesis fits only some cases of schizophrenia.
    D. In order for someone to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, they must show brain damage on a brain scan.
    D. In order for someone to be diagnosed with schizophrenia, they must show brain damage on a brain scan.
  41. Schizophrenia differs across cultures in which of the following ways?
    A. The prevalence of schizophrenia is higher in some countries than in others.
    B. The form of expression of schizophrenia varies across cultures.
    C.The stressors that trigger the onset of schizophrenia may be culturally
    specific, such as fearing that one is the victim of witchcraft.
    D. All of the above statements are true.
    D. All of the above statements are true.
  42. The term ___________ refers to a group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior. The individual withdraws from people and reality often retreating into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations.
    schizophrenia
  43. ________ are mistaken beliefs maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary.
    delusions
  44. The _________ hypothesis is the theory that overactivity of dopamine neurons may contribute to some forms of schizophrenia.
    dopamine
  45. Attitudes
    Learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object.
  46. attribution
    An explanation for the cause of behaviors or events.
  47. cognitive dissonance
    A feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between two competing attitudes.
  48. fundamental attribution error (FAE)
    Misjudging the causes of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) ones.
  49. saliency bias
    Focusing on the most noticeable (salient) factors when explaining the causes of behavior.
  50. self-serving bias
    Taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures.
  51. social psychology
    The study of how others influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
  52. Jake is getting poor grades in his algebra course. His instructor assumes that Jake must be lazy and immature. The instructor is making a _______________ attribution.
    dispositional
  53. Katherine notices that Bob is occasionally late for work. She assumes that he is simply careless. She does not realize that Bob is a single parent with a young child whom he regularly drops off at daycare as soon as it opens. He then must hurry through heavy traffic to be at work on time. Katherine's mistaken attribution is an example of ___________________.
    the fundamental attribution error
  54. Ryan believes that his good grades in his business classes are the result of his strong work ethic and high intelligence. However, he believes that his poor grades in psychology are the result of an unskilled and vindictive instructor. Ryan's thinking is an example of _____________.
    self-serving bias
  55. Elizabeth has harbored negative feelings toward obese people and blames their obesity on poor self-control and laziness. However, once she takes a sedentary job that requires a lot of overtime, she becomes significantly overweight herself. Elizabeth no longer has such intense negative feelings toward obese people nor does she blame their obesity on character flaws. Her attitude change is most likely the result of ________________.
    cognitive dissonance
  56. Amy is adamantly opposed to the death penalty. However, in her ethics class, the students must debate controversial topics in class. She is assigned to argue the merits of the death penalty. She objects to this assignment but is told that she must do the assignment in order to successfully pass the course. Therefore, Amy writes a persuasive speech in favor of the death penalty and defends this position in the classroom debate. According to research on the cognitive dissonance theory, which of the following outcomes is MOST likely?
    A. Amy will likely be motivated to become politically active to abolish the death penalty.
    B. Whether or not Amy changes her attitude depends upon the reaction of the other students in her class to her speech.
    C. Amy is unlikely to change her attitude toward the death penalty.
    D. Amy is likely to change her attitude toward the death penalty.
    C. Amy is unlikely to change her attitude toward the death penalty.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. Samir is a cashier at a grocery store. He resents customers who use "food stamps" or other government vouchers to buy food. He assumes that people who receive welfare are lazy and lack a work ethic. This is an example of which of the following?
    saliency bias
  58. People native to Eastern countries are less likely than Westerners to demonstrate which of the following biases?
    A. cognitive dissonance
    B. both a and b
    C. self-serving bias
    D. the fundamental attribution error
    B. both a and b
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  59. ___________ psychology is the study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions.
    social
  60. _____________ refers to principles used to judge the causes of events, of our own behaviors, and others' behaviors.
    attribution
  61. _____________ bias refers to the tendency to focus on the most noticeable factors when explaining the causes of behavior.
    saliency
  62. Companionate love
    Strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship.
  63. Discrimination
    Negative behaviors directed at members of a group.
  64. ingroup favoritism
    Viewing members of the ingroup more positively than members of an outgroup.
  65. interpersonal attraction
    Positive feelings toward another.
  66. need compatibility
    Attraction based on sharing similar needs.
  67. need complementarity
    Attraction toward those with qualities we admire but personally lack.
  68. outgroup homogeneity effect
    Judging members of an outgroup as more alike and less diverse than members of the ingroup.
  69. Prejudice
    A learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group; it includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings, and behavioral tendencies (possible discrimination).
  70. proximity
    Attraction based on geographic closeness.
  71. Romantic love
    Intense feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations.
  72. stereotype
    A set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members; also, the cognitive component of prejudice.
  73. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    A. Opposites attract.
    B. There are positive as well as negative forms of prejudice.
    C. People are more likely to help another individual when they are alone than when they are in a group.
    D. Most people judge others more harshly than they judge themselves.
    A. Opposites attract.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Research supports which of the following statements about physical attractiveness?
    A. Attractive individuals are seen as more poised, interesting, cooperative, achieving, sociable, independent, intelligent, healthy, and
    sexually warm.
    B. Premature infants rated as more physically
    attractive by the nurses caring for them thrive better during their
    hospital stay, gain weight quicker, and are released earlier.
    C. Even when convicting defendants of comparable crimes, judges tend to give
    longer prison sentences to unattractive versus attractive defendants.
    D. All of the above statements are supported by research findings.
    D. All of the above statements are supported by research findings.
  75. Which of the following statements about attraction is FALSE?
    A. Familiar people become more physically attractive over time.
    B. Repeated exposure to a person is associated with increased overall liking.
    C. Love relationships often develop from friendships and initial feelings of liking for one another.
    D. People with very different backgrounds, interests, and attitudes tend to be attracted to each other.
    D. People with very different backgrounds, interests, and attitudes tend to be attracted to each other.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Psychologists refer to attraction based on sharing similar needs as ______________.
    need compatibility
  77. Which of the following statements about love is TRUE?
    A. Companionate love can last a lifetime.
    B. Studies indicate that people stay longer in relationships where they have an unrealistically
    positive perception of their partner.
    C. Romantic love begins to fade after six to 30 months.
    D. All of the above statements are true.
    D. All of the above statements are true.
  78. Riley believes that African-Americans are �natural-born athletes.� This is an example of _________________.
    a stereotype
  79. Samir is a little boy who watches a lot of television. He often sees minorities and women portrayed in demeaning and stereotypical roles, and he begins to accept these portrayals as valid and reflective of the real world. This is an example of:
    prejudice as a learned response
  80. Alicia tends to view members of her own group as more attractive, more intelligent, and as behaving in more socially acceptable ways than members of groups to which she does not belong. This tendency is referred to as ____________________.
    ingroup favoritism
  81. Marcus has a tendency to view his Hispanic coworkers as all sharing similar characteristics. This bias is referred to as _____________.
    outgroup homogeneity effect
  82. Which of the following statements about physical attractiveness across cultures is FALSE?
    A. Men and women of approximately equal physical attractiveness tend to select each other as partners.
    B. Women are judged as more beautiful if they are youthful in appearance.
    C. For men, appearance is the most important factor in attracting a female mate.
    D. Flirting is a simple way to increase attractiveness.
    C. For men, appearance is the most important factor in attracting a female mate.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. Lynn and Sheila are very close friends and tend to admire qualities in each other that they themselves lack. Psychologists refer to this as _____________.
    need complimentary
  84. Katherine has been dating Alfredo for six months and reports to her roommate that she is deeply in love. She claims that Alfredo has �no faults� and is her ideal companion. She is highly distracted at work because she is thinking of him and anticipating their next date. What type of love is she likely to be describing?
    romantic love
  85. Sandy does not approve of the intense and sudden relationship that has developed between her teenage daughter and a male schoolmate. She forbids her daughter to see or speak to this young man. According to research findings, what is likely to happen as a result?
    The teenagers' feelings of romantic love will increase
  86. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    A. Groups generally make more conservative decisions than a single individual does.
    B. Most people judge others more harshly than they judge themselves.
    C. Romantic love rarely lasts longer than 30 months.
    D. Looks are the primary factor in our initial feelings of attraction, liking, and romantic love.
    A. Groups generally make more conservative decisions than a single individual does.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. A _________ is the cognitive component of prejudice, and ___________ is the behavioral component of prejudice.
    stereotype; discrimination
  88. Which of the following is (are) commonly cited sources of prejudice?
    A. prejudice as a learned response
    B. prejudice as a mental shortcut
    C. prejudice as a result of economic and political competition
    D. all of the above
    D. all of the above
  89. Raul is a little boy who hears his parents expressing prejudices and copies their behavior. When he expresses racist remarks, he tends to receive approval from family and friends. This is an example of:
    prejudice as a learned response
  90. Which of the following ideas is supported by findings showing that lower-class whites in the United States tend to have more racist attitudes than higher-class whites?
    prejudice as a result of economic and political competition
  91. During the Great Depression of the 1930's, Hitler used Jews and others as scapegoats that Germans could blame for their economic troubles. This is an example of:
    prejudice as a form of displaced aggression
  92. ______________ is a learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group. It includes thoughts, feelings, and behavioral tendencies.
    Prejudice
  93. A ___________ is a set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members. It is the cognitive component of prejudice.
    stereotype
  94. ____________ refers to negative behaviors directed at members of a group.
    Discrimination
  95. ________________ love refers to an intense feeling of attraction to another that includes both erotic and future expectations.
    Romantic
  96. _______________ love refers to strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship.
    Compantionate
  97. Aggression
    Any behavior intended to harm someone.
  98. Altruism
    Actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper.
  99. conformity
    Changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure.
  100. deindividuation
    Reduced self-consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous.
  101. diffusion of responsibility
    The dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members.
  102. egoistic model
    Helping that's motivated by anticipated gain--later reciprocation, increased self-esteem, or avoidance of distress and guilt.
  103. empathy-altruism hypothesis
    Helping because of empathy for someone in need.
  104. foot-in-the-door technique
    A first, small request is used as a setup for later, larger requests.
  105. frustration-aggression hypothesis
    Blocking of a desired goal (frustration) creates anger that may lead to aggression.
  106. group polarization
    Group's movement toward either riskier or more conservative behavior, depending on the members' initial dominant tendency.
  107. groupthink
    Faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information.
  108. informational social influence
    Conforming because of a need for information and direction.
  109. norm
    Cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable in a given situation.
  110. normative social influence
    Conforming to group pressure out of a need for approval and acceptance.
  111. obedience
    Following direct commands, usually from an authority figure.
  112. reference group
    People we conform to, or go along with, because we like and admire them and want to be like them.
  113. In anticipation of attending a fancy dinner party with her new boyfriend, Ashley asks what others will be wearing so that she will dress "appropriately." While attending the dinner party, she watches others carefully and copies their behavior. This is an example of ________________
    normative social influence
  114. Bob asked his friend for advice about which brand and model of computer to buy and followed her advice. This is an example of ____________.
    informational social influence
  115. If a homeowner allows a salesman to give him a small gift, he is more likely to agree to buy something. This is an example of which of the following?
    the foot-in-the-door technique
  116. Which of the following concepts offers a plausible explanation for why otherwise well-adjusted, normal people may become part of an angry mob at a soccer game?
    Deindividuation may increase aggression
  117. Lynn is an artist who cannot get a painting to look the way she wants it to look, and her anger begins to build. Finally, she throws the palette into the sink and takes her argument out on her husband. Which of the following concepts explains her anger best?
    frustration-aggression hypothesis
  118. Jennifer is displeased that her neighbor's yard looks neglected. She knows that the neighbor lives alone and is an accountant, so she attributes the messy yard to the fact that it is "tax season." She assumes that the yard will be neater after the April tax deadline. Jennifer is making a ______________ attribution.
    situational
  119. Presidential embarrassments, such as Franklin Roosevelt's failure to anticipate the attack on Pearl Harbor, John F. Kennedy's disastrous backing of the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, and Ronald Reagan's Iran-Contra scandal have all been blamed on ____________.
    groupthink
  120. Which of the following statements about aggression is FALSE?
    A. Twin studies suggest that some individuals are genetically
    predisposed to have hostile, irritable temperaments and to engage in
    aggressive acts.
    B. Research with brain injuries and organic disorders has identified possible aggression circuits in the brain.
    C. Substance abuse is a major factor in most forms of aggression.
    D. Testosterone appears to have no connection with aggressive behavior.
    D. Testosterone appears to have no connection with aggressive behavior.
  121. In the famous Kitty Genovese murder case, thirty-eight neighbors heard her screams for help as she was being stabbed, but only one of the neighbors belatedly called the police. Which of the following concepts offers the BEST explanation for why her neighbors did not respond immediately?
    diffusion of responsibility phenomenon
  122. What percentage of Milgram's subjects continued to obey until the very of the experiment?
    65%
  123. _________________ refers to an increase in arousal and a reduction in self-consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occur in a group particularly when the members feel anonymous.
    deindividuation
  124. _____________ refers to faulty decision-making that occurs when a highly cohesive group strives for agreement and avoids inconsistent information.
    Groupthink

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