PHAR CH 17

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leti563
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83995
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PHAR CH 17
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2011-05-05 16:47:57
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CHAPTER 17 ANTIINFECTIVE AGENTS
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  1. INFECTION
    A colonization of pathogenic organisms that leads to tissure destruction.
  2. PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
    BACTERIA
    sINGLE CELLED MICRO ORGANISMS
  3. PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
    Fungus
    Plant like organisms that lack chlorophyll
  4. PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
    Virus
    Submicroscopic organisms that invaades living cells.
  5. PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
    Parasite
    Organisms tha live on or inside another organisms.
  6. PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
    Protozoa
    Single celled microbe with animal characteristics.
  7. BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
    Bacteria
    • Single celed organisms
    • Most abundant organisms on earth (and in our bodies)
    • Microscopic
  8. AEROBIC ORGANISMS
    oXYGEN NECCESSARY FOR NORMAL METABOLISM.
  9. ANAEROBIC ORGNISMS
    oxygen not recquired, and may even be toxic
  10. ANTIBIOTICS
    Drugs that kill slow growth of bacteria.
  11. PHARMACODYNAMICS
    Bacteriostatic
    A drug that inhibits the growth of an infectuous organism.
  12. PHARMACODYNAMICS
    Bacteriocidal
    a drug tha kills the infectious organism.
  13. SELECTION OF ANTIBIOTICS
    • 1. lIVER/ KIDNEY FUNCTION
    • 2. Age
    • 3. Pregnancy
    • 4. Resistance- Combination Drugs
  14. ANTIBIOTICS
    Resistence
    The ability of na organism to withstand the effects of an organism.

    • Due to:
    • Frequent overuse (Common cold)
    • Incomplete treatment
  15. Resistamce Nosocomial Infections
    Hospital acquired often resistant ot at least one drug.
  16. MRSA
    Methicillin Resistant Staph aureus
  17. ANTIBIOTICS ADVERSE REACTION
    • Allergic- Mild- urticaria
    • Severe Anaphylaxis

    Direct Toxicity:

    • indirect toxicity:
    • New infection caused.
  18. AMINOGLYCOSIDES
    Uses: Short term treatment of serious infections.

    • (septicemia)
    • Narrow spectrum
  19. CEPHALOSPORINS
    Semi synthetic, derived from fungus like penicillin.

    3 generatins
  20. CEPHALOSPORINS 3 generations
    • 1st- cephalexin 9Keflex)
    • 2nd- cefaclor (Ceclor)
    • 3rd- ceftiazxone (Rocephin)
  21. MACROLIDES ANTIBIOTICS
    erythromycin (E-mycin)
    SE's abdominal cramping anorexia
  22. PENICILLIN
    • iNDICATIONS sYPHLIS, RESPIRATORY AND INTESTINAL INFECTIONS.
    • SE's: N/V. diarrhea, allergic reactions

    • PenicillinG (Bycillin)
    • amoxicillin (Amoxil)
    • ampicillin (Principen)
  23. QUINOLONES
    • Bacteriocidal
    • indications: Urinary tract infection, respiratory infections.
    • SE's: CNS, headache, confusion.
  24. TETRACYCLONE
    • Vroad Spectrum
    • SE'S: Yellowing of teeth (Children)
    • Photosensitivity
    • Potentiation: with anti inflammatory drugs
    • Antagonistic: wthh oral BC pills
    • doxycycline (Vibramycin)
  25. ANTIFUNGALS
    Members of the plant family. they contain no chlorophyl to sustain themselves.
  26. FUNGAL INFECTIONS
    Superficial- skin hair, mucous membranes

    Systemic- (Opportunistic)
  27. SYSTEMIC FUNGAL INFECTIONS
    • Pneumonia
    • Meningitis
  28. PNEUMONIA
    Fungal pneumonia is caused by Aspergillus
  29. SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
    amphotericin B (Fungizone)
    IV only highly toxic to:

    • The auditory nerve (Ototoxicity)
    • The kidneys (nephrotoxicity)
  30. SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS
    fluconazole (Diflucan)
    Better tolerated. Oral dosage form.
  31. TB TREATMENT
    Treatment after exposure to prevent the development of disease.

    • 6-12 months:
    • 1. isoniazid (INH) alone or with
    • 2. rifampin (Rifadin)

    SE's: Liver toxicity, nausea/ vomitting
  32. clindamycin (Cleaocin)
    • Indications: AIDS pneumonia (pneumocytis carinii)
    • Topical preparation for acne (Cleocin-T)

    • Contraindications: Pregnancy
    • Hepatic or renal failure.
  33. metronidazole (Flagyl)
    • Indications:
    • protozoal infections
    • -Dysentery
    • -trichomonas (STD)
    • -giardia (travelers)

    Intestinal Infections (h.pylori)

    SE's: Abdominal Pain, metallic taste.

    Contraindications: Pregnancy
  34. ANTIVIRAL AGENTS
    Virus
    Submicroscopic infectious agent.

    • Can only grow and multiply in liveing cells.
    • Most are removed by our immune system.
    • Some (Hepatitis) can remanin and cause long term illness.
  35. ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
    Do NOT cue infections.

    Given tp reduce tje severity and durations of symptoms.
  36. ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
    acyclovir (Zovirax)
    Indications: Herpes simplex, H. zoster,

    Side effects: Fatigue, headache.
  37. ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
    amantadine (Symmetrel)
    Indications: Influenza viral infections

    SE's: CNS-dizziness, nervousness, confusion.
  38. SULFONAMIDES
    One of the oldest groups of antibiotics.

    Resistance has led to combination therapy.

    Indications: UTI AIDS pneumonia.

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